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A First Implementation of Underwater Communications in Raw Water Using the 433 MHz Frequency Combined with a Bowtie Antenna

Ryecroft, S, Shaw, A, Fergus, P, Kot, P, Hashim, KS, Moody, A and Conway, L (2019) A First Implementation of Underwater Communications in Raw Water Using the 433 MHz Frequency Combined with a Bowtie Antenna. Sensors, 19 (8). ISSN 1424-8220

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Abstract

In 2016, there were 317 serious water pollution incidents in the UK, with 78,000 locations where businesses discharge controlled quantities of pollutants into rivers; therefore, continuous monitoring is vital. Since 1998, the environment agency has taken over 50 million water samples for water quality monitoring. The Internet of Things has grown phenomenally in recent years, reaching all aspects of our lives, many of these connected devices use wireless sensor networks to relay data to internet-connected nodes, where data can be processed, analyzed and consumed. However, Underwater wireless communications rely mainly on alternative communication methods such as optical and acoustic, with radio frequencies being an under-exploited method. This research presents real world results conducted in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal for the novel use of the 433 MHz radio frequency combined with a bowtie antenna in underwater communications in raw water, achieving distances of 7 m at 1.2 kbps and 5 meters at 25 kbps.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0301 Analytical Chemistry, 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Built Environment
Civil Engineering
Publisher: MDPI
Date Deposited: 16 Apr 2019 10:24
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2019 15:48
DOI or Identification number: 10.3390/s19081813
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10558

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