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African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

Liu, W and Li, Y and Shaw, KS and Learn, GH and Plenderleith, LJ and Malenke, JA and Sundararaman, SA and Ramirez, MA and Crystal, PA and Smith, AG and Bibollet-Ruche, F and Ayouba, A and Locatelli, S and Esteban, A and Mouacha, F and Guichet, E and Butel, C and Ahuka-Mundeke, S and Inogwabini, B-I and Ndjango, J-BN and Speede, S and Sanz, CM and Morgan, DB and Gonder, MK and Kranzusch, PJ and Walsh, PD and Georgiev, AV and Muller, MN and Piel, AK and Stewart, FA and Wilson, ML and Pusey, AE and Cui, L and Wang, Z and Farnert, A and Sutherland, CJ and Nolder, D and Hart, JA and Hart, TB and Bertolani, P and Gillis, A and LeBreton, M and Tafon, B and Kiyang, J and Djoko, CF and Schneider, BS and Wolfe, ND and Mpoudi-Ngole, E and Delaporte, E and Carter, R and Culleton, RL and Shaw, GM and Rayner, JC and Peeters, M and Hahn, BH and Sharp, PM (2014) African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 5 (3346). ISSN 2041-1723

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Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: MD Multidisciplinary
Subjects: Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Natural Sciences and Psychology
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Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2016 13:05
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2016 13:05
DOI or Identification number: 10.1038/ncomms4346
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2654

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