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Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’S,4’S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ)

Brandt, SD and Kavanagh, PV and Westphal, F and Elliott, SP and Wallach, J and Colestock, T and Burrow, TE and Chapman, SJ and Stratford, A and Nichols, DE and Halberstadt, AL (2016) Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’S,4’S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ). Drug Testing and Analysis. ISSN 1942-7611

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Abstract

Lysergic N,N-diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the most intriguing psychoactive substances known and numerous analogs have been explored to a varying extent in previous decades. In 2013, N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’S,4’S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ) have appeared on the ‘research chemicals’ / new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in both powdered and blotter form. This study reports the analytical characterization of powdered AL-LAD and LSZ tartrate samples and their semi-quantitative determination on blotter paper. Included in this study was the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS), low and high-resolution electrospray MS(/MS), high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection and GC solid-state infrared analysis. One feature shared by serotonergic psychedelics, such as LSD, is the ability to mediate behavioral responses via activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Both AL-LAD and LSZ displayed LSD-like responses in male C57BL/6J mice when employing the head-twitch response (HTR) assay. AL-LAD and LSZ produced nearly identical inverted-U-shaped dose dependent effects, with the maximal responses occurring at 200 µg/kg. Analysis of the dose-responses by nonlinear regression confirmed that LSZ (ED50 = 114.2 nmol/kg) was equipotent to LSD (ED50 = 132.8 nmol/kg) in mice, whereas AL-LAD was slightly less potent (ED50 = 174.9 nmol/kg). The extent to which a comparison in potency can be translated directly to humans requires further investigation. Availability of both chemical and pharmacological data obtained from NPS as they appear on the market provides important data to research communities that are interested in various aspects related substance use and forensic identification.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted version of the following article: "Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’S,4’S)-lysergic acid", which has been published in final form at Brandt, S. D., Kavanagh, P. V., Westphal, F., Elliott, S. P., Wallach, J., Colestock, T., Burrow, T. E., Chapman, S. J., Stratford, A., Nichols, D. E., and Halberstadt, A. L. (2016) Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’S,4’S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ). Drug Test. Analysis, doi: 10.1002/dta.1985.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0301 Analytical Chemistry, 1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2016 13:29
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2017 00:00
DOI or Identification number: 10.1002/dta.1985
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3397

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