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With the rapid proliferation of new wireless communication devices and services, the demand for the radio spectrum is increasing at a rapid rate, which leads to making the spectrum more and more crowded. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage have led to the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) and dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technologies, which enable future wireless communication systems to exploit the empty spectrum in an opportunistic manner. To do so, future wireless devices should be aware of their surrounding radio environment in order to adapt their operating parameters according to the real-time conditions of the radio environment. From this viewpoint, spectrum sensing is becoming increasingly important to new and future wireless communication systems, which is designed to monitor the usage of the radio spectrum and reliably identify the unused bands to enable wireless devices to switch from one vacant band to another, thereby achieving flexible, reliable, and efficient spectrum utilisation.
This thesis focuses on issues related to local and cooperative spectrum sensing for CR networks, which need to be resolved. These include the problems of noise uncertainty and detection in low signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments in individual spectrum sensing. In addition to issues of energy consumption, sensing delay and reporting error in cooperative spectrum sensing. In this thesis, we investigate how to improve spectrum sensing algorithms to increase their detection performance and achieving energy efficiency.
To this end, first, we propose a new spectrum sensing algorithm based on energy detection that increases the reliability of individual spectrum sensing. In spite of the fact that the energy detection is still the most common detection mechanism for spectrum sensing due to its simplicity. Energy detection does not require any prior knowledge of primary signals, but has the drawbacks of threshold selection, and poor performance due to noise uncertainty especially at low SNR. Therefore, a new adaptive optimal energy detection algorithm (AOED) is presented in this thesis. In comparison with the existing energy detection schemes the detection performance achieved through AOED algorithm is higher.
Secondly, as cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) can give further improvement in the detection reliability, the AOED algorithm is extended to cooperative sensing; in which multiple cognitive users collaborate to detect the primary transmission. The new combined approach (AOED and CSS) is shown to be more reliable detection than the individual detection scheme, where the hidden terminal problem can be mitigated. Furthermore, an optimal fusion strategy for hard-fusion based cognitive radio networks is presented, which optimises sensing performance.
Thirdly, the need for denser deployment of base stations to satisfy the estimated high traffic demand in future wireless networks leads to a significant increase in energy consumption. Moreover, in large-scale cognitive radio networks some of cooperative devices may be located far away from the fusion centre, which causes an increase in the error rate of reporting channel, and thus deteriorating the performance of cooperative spectrum sensing. To overcome these problems, a new multi-hop cluster based cooperative spectrum sensing (MHCCSS) scheme is proposed, where only cluster heads are allowed to send their cluster results to the fusion centre via successive cluster heads, based on higher SNR of communication channel between cluster heads.
Furthermore, in decentralised CSS as in cognitive radio Ad Hoc networks (CRAHNs), where there is no fusion centre, each cognitive user performs the local spectrum sensing and shares the sensing information with its neighbours and then makes its decision on the spectrum availability based on its own sensing information and the neighbours’ information. However, cooperation between cognitive users consumes significant energy due to heavy communications. In addition to this, each CR user has asynchronous sensing and transmission schedules which add new challenges in implementing CSS in CRAHNs. In this thesis, a new multi-hop cluster based CSS scheme has been proposed for CRAHNs, which can enhance the cooperative sensing performance and reduce the energy consumption compared with other conventional decentralised cooperative spectrum sensing modes.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cognitive radio networks, spectrum sensing, energy detection, cooperative spectrum sensing, cluster based spectrum sensing.
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Computer Science
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2016 12:29
Last Modified: 04 Nov 2016 12:29
Supervisors: Merabti, Madjid and Bouhafs, Faycal
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/4474

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