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Impact of lifelong exercise training on endothelial ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic preconditioning in humans.

Maessen, MFH and van Mil, ACCM and Straathof, Y and Riksen, NP and Rongen, GAPJM and Hopman, MTE and Eijsvogels, TMH and Thijssen, DHJ (2017) Impact of lifelong exercise training on endothelial ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic preconditioning in humans. American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. ISSN 0363-6119

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Abstract

Reperfusion is essential for ischemic tissue survival, but causes additional damage to the endothelium (i.e. ischemia-reperfusion [IR] injury). Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to short repetitive episodes of ischemia that can protect against IR. However, IPC efficacy attenuates with older age. Whether physical inactivity contributes to the attenuated efficacy of IPC to protect against IR injury in older humans is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that lifelong exercise training relates to 1) attenuated endothelial IR and 2) maintained IPC efficacy that protects veteran athletes against endothelial IR. In 18 sedentary male individuals (SED, <1 exercise hour/week for >20 years, 63±7 years) and 20 veteran male athletes (ATH, >5 exercise hours/week for >20 years, 63±6 years), we measured brachial artery endothelial function with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after IR. We induced IR by 20-minutes of ischemia followed by 20-minutes of reperfusion. Randomized over 2 days, participants underwent either 35-minute rest or IPC (3 cycles of 5-minutes cuff inflation to 220 mmHg with 5-minutes of rest) before IR. In SED, FMD decreased after IR (median [interquartile range]): (3.0% [2.0-4.7] to 2.1% [1.5-3.9], P=0.046) and IPC did not prevent this decline (4.1% [2.6-5.2] to 2.8% [2.2-3.6],P=0.012). In ATH, FMD was preserved after IR (3.0% [1.7-5.4] to 3.0% [1.9-4.1], P=0.82) and when IPC preceded IR (3.2% [1.9-4.2] to 2.8% [1.4-4.6],P=0.18). These findings indicate that lifelong exercise training is associated with increased tolerance against endothelial IR. These protective, preconditioning effects of lifelong exercise against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion may contribute to the cardio-protective effects of exercise training.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences, 11 Medical And Health Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Amercian Physiological Society
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2017 09:37
Last Modified: 21 Mar 2017 09:37
DOI or Identification number: 10.1152/ajpregu.00466.2016
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/6050

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