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SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at +2 years

Fraser, M and Kotak, R and Pastorello, A and Jerkstrand, A and Smartt, SJ and Chen, T-W and Childress, M and Gilmore, G and Inserra, C and Kankare, E and Margheim, S and Mattila, S and Valenti, S and Ashall, C and Benetti, S and Botticella, MT and Bauer, FE and Campbell, H and Elias-Rosa, N and Fleury, M and Gal-Yam, A and Hachinger, S and Howell, DA and Guillou, LL and Léget, P-F and Morales-Garoffolo, A and Polshaw, J and Spiro, S and Sullivan, M and Taubenberger, S and Turatto, M and Walker, ES and Young, DR and Zhang, B (2015) SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at +2 years. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 453 (4). pp. 3886-3905. ISSN 0035-8711

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We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterise the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely $^{56}$Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow ($\lesssim$2000 km~s$^{-1}$) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe~{\sc ii}] $\lambda$7155 and [O~{\sc i}] $\lambda\lambda$6300,6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km~s$^{-1}$. The lines are not blue-shifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 days after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2015 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords: astro-ph.SR; astro-ph.SR
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 17 Feb 2017 11:24
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2017 07:54
DOI or Identification number: 10.1093/mnras/stv1919
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/662

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