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Mobile Network and Cloud Based Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation and Processing

Baharon, MR (2017) Mobile Network and Cloud Based Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation and Processing. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

The emerging technology of mobile devices and cloud computing has brought a new and efficient way for data to be collected, processed and stored by mobile users. With improved specifications of mobile devices and various mobile applications provided by cloud servers, mobile users can enjoy tremendous advantages to manage their daily life through those applications instantaneously, conveniently and productively. However, using such applications may lead to the exposure of user data to unauthorised access when the data is outsourced for processing and storing purposes. Furthermore, such a setting raises the privacy breach and security issue to mobile users. As a result, mobile users would be reluctant to accept those applications without any guarantee on the safety of their data. The recent breakthrough of Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) has brought a new solution for data processing in a secure motion. Several variants and improvements on the existing methods have been developed due to efficiency problems. Experience of such problems has led us to explore two areas of studies, Mobile Sensing Systems (MSS) and Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). In MSS, the functionality of smartphones has been extended to sense and aggregate surrounding data for processing by an Aggregation Server (AS) that may be operated by a Cloud Service Provider (CSP). On the other hand, MCC allows resource-constraint devices like smartphones to fully leverage services provided by powerful and massive servers of CSPs for data processing. To support the above two application scenarios, this thesis proposes two novel schemes: an Accountable Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation (APDA) scheme and a Lightweight Homomorphic Encryption (LHE) scheme. MSS is a kind of WSNs, which implements a data aggregation approach for saving the battery lifetime of mobile devices. Furthermore, such an approach could improve the security of the outsourced data by mixing the data prior to be transmitted to an AS, so as to prevent the collusion between mobile users and the AS (or its CSP). The exposure of users’ data to other mobile users leads to a privacy breach and existing methods on preserving users’ privacy only provide an integrity check on the aggregated data without being able to identify any misbehaved nodes once the integrity check has failed. Thus, to overcome such problems, our first scheme APDA is proposed to efficiently preserve privacy and support accountability of mobile users during the data aggregation. Furthermore, APDA is designed with three versions to provide balanced solutions in terms of misbehaved node detection and data aggregation efficiency for different application scenarios. In addition, the successfully aggregated data also needs to be accompanied by some summary information based on necessary additive and non-additive functions. To preserve the privacy of mobile users, such summary could be executed by implementing existing privacy-preserving data aggregation techniques. Nevertheless, those techniques have limitations in terms of applicability, efficiency and functionality. Thus, our APDA has been extended to allow maximal value finding to be computed on the ciphertext data so as to preserve user privacy with good efficiency. Furthermore, such a solution could also be developed for other comparative operations like Average, Percentile and Histogram. Three versions of Maximal value finding (Max) are introduced and analysed in order to differentiate their efficiency and capability to determine the maximum value in a privacy-preserving manner. Moreover, the formal security proof and extensive performance evaluation of our proposed schemes demonstrate that APDA and its extended version can achieve stronger security with an optimised efficiency advantage over the state-of-the-art in terms of both computational and communication overheads. In the MCC environment, the new LHE scheme is proposed with a significant difference so as to allow arbitrary functions to be executed on ciphertext data. Such a scheme will enable rich-mobile applications provided by CSPs to be leveraged by resource-constraint devices in a privacy-preserving manner. The scheme works well as long as noise (a random number attached to the plaintext for security reasons) is less than the encryption key, which makes it flexible. The flexibility of the key size enables the scheme to incorporate with any computation functions in order to produce an accurate result. In addition, this scheme encrypts integers rather than individual bits so as to improve the scheme’s efficiency. With a proposed process that allows three or more parties to communicate securely, this scheme is suited to the MCC environment due to its lightweight property and strong security. Furthermore, the efficacy and efficiency of this scheme are thoroughly evaluated and compared with other schemes. The result shows that this scheme can achieve stronger security under a reasonable cost.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fully Homomorphic Encryption; Partially Homomorphic Encryption; Mobile Cloud Computing; Mobile Sensing System; Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation; Data Security and Integrity; Users Accountability; Approximate-Greatest Common Divisor Problem; Discrete Logarithm Problem; Modular Arithmetic; Additive and Non-Additive Statistical Functions; Maximal Value Finding
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Computer Science
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2017 08:34
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2017 08:34
Supervisors: Shi, Q and Llewellyn-jones, D and Merabti, M
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7244

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