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Gaia Data Release 1 Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects

van Leeuwen, F and Vallenari, A and Jordi, C and Lindegren, L and Bastian, U and Prusti, T and de Bruijne, JHJ and Brown, AGA and Babusiaux, C and Bailer-Jones, CAL and Biermann, M and Evans, DW and Eyer, L and Jansen, F and Klioner, SA and Lammers, U and Luri, X and Mignard, F and Panem, C and Pourbaix, D and Randich, S and Sartoretti, P and Siddiqui, HI and Soubiran, C and Valette, V and Walton, NA and Aerts, C and Arenou, F and Cropper, M and Drimmel, R and Hog, E and Katz, D and Lattanzi, MG and O'Mullane, W and Grebel, EK and Holland, AD and Huc, C and Passot, X and Perryman, M and Bramante, L and Cacciari, C and Castaneda, J and Chaoul, L and Cheek, N and De Angeli, F and Fabricius, C and Guerra, R and Hernandez, J and Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A and Masana, E and Messineo, R and Mowlavi, N and Nienartowicz, K and Ordonez-Blanco, D and Panuzzo, P and Portell, J and Richards, PJ and Riello, M and Seabroke, GM and Tanga, P and Thevenin, F and Torra, J and Els, SG and Gracia-Abril, G and Comoretto, G and Garcia-Reinaldos, M and Lock, T and Mercier, E and Altmann, M and Andrae, R and Astraatmadja, TL and Bellas-Velidis, I and Benson, K and Berthier, J and Blomme, R and Busso, G and Carry, B and Cellino, A and Clementini, G and Cowell, S and Creevey, O and Cuypers, J and Davidson, M and De Ridder, J and de Torres, A and Delchambre, L and Dell'Oro, A and Ducourant, C and Fremat, Y and Garcia-Torres, M and Gosset, E and Halbwachs, J-L and Hambly, NC and Harrison, DL and Hauser, M and Hestroffer, D and Hodgkin, ST and Huckle, HE and Hutton, A and Jasniewicz, G and Jordan, S and Kontizas, M and Korn, AJ and Lanzafame, AC and Manteiga, M and Moitinho, A and Muinonen, K and Osinde, J and Pancino, E and Pauwels, T and Petit, J-M and Recio-Blanco, A and Robin, AC and Sarro, LM and Siopis, C and Smith, M and Smith, KW and Sozzetti, A and Thuillot, W and van Reeven, W and Viala, Y and Abbas, U and Abreu, A and Aramburu, AA and Accart, S and Aguado, JJ and Allan, PM and Allasia, W and Altavilla, G and Alvarez, MA and Alves, J and Anderson, RI and Andrei, AH and Varela, EA and Antiche, E and Antoja, T and Anton, S and Arcay, B and Bach, N and Baker, SG and Balaguer-Nunez, L and Barache, C and Barata, C and Barbier, A and Barblan, F and Barrado y Navascues, D and Barros, M and Barstow, MA and Becciani, U and Bellazzini, M and Garcia, AB and Belokurov, V and Bendjoya, P and Berihuete, A and Bianchi, L and Bienayme, O and Billebaud, F and Blagorodnova, N and Blanco-Cuaresma, S and Boch, T and Bombrun, A and Borrachero, R and Bouquillon, S and Bourda, G and Bouy, H and Bragaglia, A and Breddels, MA and Brouillet, N and Bruesemeister, T and Bucciarelli, B and Burgess, P and Burgon, R and Burlacu, A and Busonero, D and Buzzi, R and Caffau, E and Cambras, J and Campbell, H and Cancelliere, R and Cantat-Gaudin, T and Carlucci, T and Carrasco, JM and Castellani, M and Charlot, P and Charnas, J and Chiavassa, A and Clotet, M and Cocozza, G and Collins, RS and Costigan, G and Crifo, F and Cross, NJG and Crosta, M and Crowley, C and Dafonte, C and Damerdji, Y and Dapergolas, A and David, P and David, M and De Cat, P and de Felice, F and de laverny, P and De Luise, F and De March, R and de Martino, D and de Souza, R and Debosscher, J and del Pozo, E and Delbo, M and Delgado, A and Delgado, HE and Di Matteo, P and Diakite, S and Distefano, E and Dolding, C and Dos Anjos, S and Drazinos, P and Duran, J and Dzigan, Y and Edvardsson, B and Enke, H and Evans, NW and Bontemps, GE and Fabre, C and Fabrizio, M and Faigler, S and Falcao, AJ and Casas, MF and Federici, L and Fedorets, G and Fernandez-Hernandez, J and Fernique, P and Fienga, A and Figueras, F and Filippi, F and Findeisen, K and Fonti, A and Fouesneau, M and Fraile, E and Fraser, M and Fuchs, J and Gai, M and Galleti, S and Galluccio, L and Garabato, D and Garcia-Sedano, F and Garofalo, A and Garralda, N and Gavras, P and Gerssen, J and Geyer, R and Gilmore, G and Girona, S and Giuffrida, G and Gomes, M and Gonzalez-Marcos, A and Gonzalez-Nunez, J and J. Gonzalez-Vidal, J and Granvik, M and Guerrier, A and Guillout, P and Guiraud, J and Gurpide, A and Gutierrez-Sanchez, R and Guy, LP and Haigron, R and Hatzidimitriou, D and Haywood, M and Heiter, U and Helmi, A and Hobbs, D and Hofmann, W and Holl, B and Holland, G and Hunt, JAS and Hypki, A and Icardi, V and Irwin, M and de Fombelle, GJ and Jofre, P and Jonker, PG and Jorissen, A and Julbe, F and Karampelas, A and Kochoska, A and Kohley, R and Kolenberg, K and Kontizas, E and Koposov, SE and Kordopatis, G and Koubsky, P and Krone-Martins, A and Kudryashova, M and Kull, I and Bachchan, RK and Lacoste-Seris, F and Lanza, AF and Lavigne, J-B and Le Poncin-Lafitte, C and Lebreton, Y and Lebzelter, T and Leccia, S and Leclerc, N and Lecoeur-Taibi, I and Lemaitre, V and Lenhardt, H and Leroux, F and Liao, S and Licata, E and Lindstrom, HEP and Lister, TA and Livanou, E and Lobel, A and Loeffer, W and Lopez, M and Lorenz, D and MacDonald, I and Magalhaes Fernandes, T and Managau, S and Mann, RG and Mantelet, G and Marchal, O and Marchant, JM and Marconi, M and Marinoni, S and Marrese, PM and Marschalko, G and Marshall, DJ and M. Martin-Fleitas, J and Martino, M and Mary, N and Matijevic, G and Mazeh, T and McMillan, PJ and Messina, S and Michalik, D and Millar, NR and Miranda, BMH and Molina, D and Molinaro, R and Molinaro, M and Molnar, L and Moniez, M and Montegriffo, P and Mor, R and Mora, A and Morbidelli, R and Morel, T and Morgenthaler, S and Morris, D and Mulone, AF and Muraveva, T and Musella, I and Narbonne, J and Nelemans, G and Nicastro, L and Noval, L and Ordenovic, C and Ordieres-Mere, J and Osborne, P and Pagani, C and Pagano, I and Pailler, F and Palacin, H and Palaversa, L and Parsons, P and Pecoraro, M and Pedrosa, R and Pentikainen, H and Pichon, B and Piersimoni, AM and Pineau, F-X and Plachy, E and Plum, G and Poujoulet, E and Prsa, A and Pulone, L and Ragaini, S and Rago, S and Rambaux, N and Ramos-Lerate, M and Ranalli, P and Rauw, G and Read, A and Regibo, S and Reyle, C and Ribeiro, RA and Rimoldini, L and Ripepi, V and Riva, A and Rixon, G and Roelens, M and Romero-Gomez, M and Rowell, N and Royer, F and Ruiz-Dern, L and Sadowski, G and Selles, TS and Sahlmann, J and Salgado, J and Salguero, E and Sarasso, M and Savietto, H and Schultheis, M and Sciacca, E and Segol, M and C. Segovia, J and Segransan, D and Shih, I-C and Smareglia, R and Smart, RL and Solano, E and Solitro, F and Sordo, R and Nieto, SS and Souchay, J and Spagna, A and Spoto, F and Stampa, U and Steele, IA and Steidelmueller, H and A. Stephenson, C and Stoev, H and Suess, FF and Sueveges, M and Surdej, J and Szabados, L and Szegedi-Elek, E and Tapiador, D and Taris, F and Tauran, G and Taylor, MB and Teixeira, R and Terrett, D and Tingley, B and Trager, SC and Turon, C and Ulla, A and Utrilla, E and Valentini, G and van Elteren, A and Van Hemelryck, E and van Leeuwen, M and Varadi, M and Vecchiato, A and Veljanoski, J and Via, T and Vicente, D and Vogt, S and Voss, H and Votruba, V and Voutsinas, S and Walmsley, G and Weiler, M and Weingrill, K and Wevers, T and Wyrzykowski, L and Yoldas, A and Zerjal, M and Zucker, S and Zurbach, C and Zwitter, T and Alecu, A and Allen, M and Allende Prieto, C and Amorim, A and Anglada-Escude, G and Arsenijevic, V and Azaz, S and Balm, P and Beck, M and Bernstein, HH and Bigot, L and Bijaoui, A and Blasco, C and Bonfigli, M and Bono, G and Boudreault, S and Bressan, A and Brown, S and Brunet, P-M and Bunclark, P and Buonanno, R and Butkevich, AG and Carret, C and Carrion, C and Chemin, L and Chereau, F and Corcione, L and Darmigny, E and de Boer, KS and de Teodoro, P and de Zeeuw, PT and Delle Luche, C and Domingues, CD and Dubath, P and Fodor, F and Frezouls, B and Fries, A and Fustes, D and Fyfe, D and Gallardo, E and Gallegos, J and Gardiol, D and Gebran, M and Gomboc, A and Gomez, A and Grux, E and Gueguen, A and Heyrovsky, A and Hoar, J and Iannicola, G and Isasi Parache, Y and Janotto, A-M and Joliet, E and Jonckheere, A and Keil, R and Kim, D-W and Klagyivik, P and Klar, J and Knude, J and Kochukhov, O and Kolka, I and Kos, J and Kutka, A and Lainey, V and LeBouquin, D and Liu, C and Loreggia, D and Makarov, VV and Marseille, MG and Martayan, C and Martinez-Rubi, O and Massart, B and Meynadier, F and Mignot, S and Munari, U and Nguyen, A-T and Nordlander, T and O'Flaherty, KS and Ocvirk, P and Sanz, AO and Ortiz, P and Osorio, J and Oszkiewicz, D and Ouzounis, A and Palmer, M and Park, P and Pasquato, E and Peltzer, C and Peralta, J and Peturaud, F and Pieniluoma, T and Pigozzi, E and Poelsy, J and Prat, G and Prod'homme, T and Raison, F and Rebordao, JM and Risquez, D and Rocca-Volmerange, B and Rosen, S and Ruiz-Fuertes, MI and Russo, F and Sembay, S and Serraller Vizcaino, I and Short, A and Siebert, A and Silva, H and Sinachopoulos, D and Slezak, E and Sofffel, M and Sosnowska, D and Straizys, V and ter Linden, M and Terrell, D and Theil, S and Tiede, C and Troisi, L and Tsalmantza, P and Tur, D and Vaccari, M and Vachier, F and Valles, P and Van Hamme, W and Veltz, L and Virtanen, J and Wallut, J-M and Wichmann, R and Wilkinson, MI and Ziaeepour, H and Zschocke, S (2017) Gaia Data Release 1 Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 601. ISSN 0004-6361

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Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS).
Aims. In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with literature estimates and derived new period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) relations for classical and Type II Cepheids and infrared PL, PL-metallicity (PLZ), and optical luminosity-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relations for the RR Lyrae stars, with zero points based on TGAS.
Methods. Classical Cepheids were carefully selected in order to discard known or suspected binary systems. The final sample comprises 102 fundamental mode pulsators with periods ranging from 1.68 to 51.66 days (of which 33 with σϖ/ϖ< 0.5). The Type II Cepheids include a total of 26 W Virginis and BL Herculis stars spanning the period range from 1.16 to 30.00 days (of which only 7 with σϖ/ϖ< 0.5). The RR Lyrae stars include 200 sources with pulsation period ranging from 0.27 to 0.80 days (of which 112 with σϖ/ϖ< 0.5). The new relations were computed using multi-band (V,I,J,Ks) photometry and spectroscopic metal abundances available in the literature, and by applying three alternative approaches: (i) linear least-squares fitting of the absolute magnitudes inferred from direct transformation of the TGAS parallaxes; (ii) adopting astrometry-based luminosities; and (iii) using a Bayesian fitting approach. The last two methods work in parallax space where parallaxes are used directly, thus maintaining symmetrical errors and allowing negative parallaxes to be used. The TGAS-based PL,PW,PLZ, and MV− [Fe/H] relations are discussed by comparing the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud provided by different types of pulsating stars and alternative fitting methods.
Results. Good agreement is found from direct comparison of the parallaxes of RR Lyrae stars for which both TGAS and HST measurements are available. Similarly, very good agreement is found between the TGAS values and the parallaxes inferred from the absolute magnitudes of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars analysed with the Baade-Wesselink method. TGAS values also compare favourably with the parallaxes inferred by theoretical model fitting of the multi-band light curves for two of the three classical Cepheids and one RR Lyrae star, which were analysed with this technique in our samples. The K-band PL relations show the significant improvement of the TGAS parallaxes for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with respect to the Hipparcos measurements. This is particularly true for the RR Lyrae stars for which improvement in quality and statistics is impressive.
Conclusions. TGAS parallaxes bring a significant added value to the previous Hipparcos estimates. The relations presented in this paper represent the first Gaia-calibrated relations and form a work-in-progress milestone report in the wait for Gaia-only parallaxes of which a first solution will become available with Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) in 2018.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: EDP Sciences
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2017 09:56
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2017 09:56
DOI or Identification number: 10.1051/0004-6361/201730552
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7342

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