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A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

Abbott, BP and Abbott, R and Abbott, TD and Acernese, F and Ackley, K and Adams, C and Adams, T and Addesso, P and Adhikari, RX and Adya, VB and Affeldt, C and Afrough, M and Agarwal, B and Agathos, M and Agatsuma, K and Aggarwal, N and Aguiar, OD and Aiello, L and Ain, A and Ajith, P and Allen, B and Allen, G and Allocca, A and Altin, PA and Amato, A and Ananyeva, A and Anderson, SB and Anderson, WG and Angelova, SV and Antier, S and Appert, S and Arai, K and Araya, MC and Areeda, JS and Arnaud, N and Arun, KG and Ascenzi, S and Ashton, G and Ast, M and Aston, SM and Astone, P and Atallah, DV and Aufmuth, P and Aulbert, C and AultO'Neal, K and Austin, C and Avila-Alvarez, A and Babak, S and Bacon, P and Bader, MKM and Bae, S and Baker, PT and Baldaccini, F and Ballardin, G and Ballmer, SW and Banagiri, S and Barayoga, JC and Barclay, SE and Barish, BC and Barker, D and Barkett, K and Barone, F and Barr, B and Barsotti, L and Barsuglia, M and Barta, D and Bartlett, J and Bartos, I and 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and Davis, C and DePoy, DL and Desai, S and Dietrich, JP and Estrada, J and Fernandez, E and Flaugher, B and Fosalba, P and Gaztanaga, E and Gerdes, DW and Giannantonio, T and Goldstein, DA and Gruen, D and Gutierrez, G and Hartley, WG and Honscheid, K and Jain, B and James, DJ and Jeltema, T and Johnson, MWG and Kent, S and Krause, E and Kron, R and Kuehn, K and Kuhlmann, S and Kuropatkin, N and Lahav, O and Lima, M and Maia, MAG and March, M and Miller, CJ and Miquel, R and Neilsen, E and Nord, B and Ogando, RLC and Plazas, AN and Romer, AK and Roodman, A and Rykoff, ES and Sanchez, E and Scarpine, V and Schubnell, M and Sevilla-Noarbe, I and Smith, M and Smith', RC and Suchyta, E and Tarle, G and Thomas, D and Thomas, RC and Troxel, MA and Tucker, DL and Vikram, V and Walker, AR and Weller, J and Zhang, Y and Haislip, JB and Kouprinov, VV and Reichart, DE and Tartaglia, L and Sand, DJ and Valenti, S and Yang, S and Arcavi, I and Hosseinzadeh, G and Howell, DA and McCully, C and Poznanski, D and Vasylyev, S and Tanvir, NR and Levan, NJ and Hjorth, J and Cano, Z and Copperwheat, CM and de Ugarte-Postigo, A and Evans, PA and Fynbo, JPU and Gonzalez-Fernandez, C and Greiner, J and Irwin, M and Lyman, J and Mandel, I and McMahon, R and Milvang-Jensen, B and O'Brien, P and Osborne, JP and Perley, DA and Pian, E and Palazzi, E and Rol, E and Rosetti, S and Rosswog, S and Rowlinson, A and Schulze, S and Steeghs, DTH and Thone, CC and Ulaczyk, K and Watson, D and Wiersema, K and Lipunov, VM and Gorbovskoy, E and Kornilov, VG and Tyurina, N and Balanutsa, P and Vlasenko, D and Gorbunov, I and Podesta, R and Levato, H and Saffe, C and Buckley, DAH and Budnev, NM and Gress, O and Yurkov, V and Rebolo, R and Serra-Ricart, M (2017) A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. NATURE, 551 (7678). ISSN 0028-0836

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Abstract

The detection of GW170817 (Abbott et al. 2017a) in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves heralds the age of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. On 17 August 2017 the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) (LIGO Scientific Collaboration et al. 2015) and Virgo (Acernese et al. 2015) detectors observed GW170817, a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than 2 seconds after the merger, a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source (Abbott et al. 2017b; Goldstein et al. 2017; Savchenko et al. 2017). This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities (Abbott et al. 2017c), resulting in the identification of an optical transient signal within ∼ 10 arcsec of the galaxy NGC 4993 (Coulter et al. 2017; Soares-Santos et al. 2017; Valenti et al. 2017; Arcavi et al. 2017; Tanvir et al. 2017; Lipunov et al. 2017). These multi-messenger observations allow us to use GW170817 as a standard siren (Schutz 1986; Holz & Hughes 2005; Dalal et al. 2006; Nissanke et al. 2010, 2013), the gravitational-wave analog of an astronomical standard candle, to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity, which represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Our measurement combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using electromagnetic data. This approach does not require any form of cosmic “distance ladder” (Freedman et al. 2001); the gravitational-wave (GW) analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be 70.0 +12.0 −8.0 km s−1 Mpc−1 (maximum a posteriori and 68% credible interval). This is consistent with existing measurements (Planck Collaboration et al. 2016; Riess et al. 2016), while being completely independent of them. Additional standard-siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will provide precision constraints of this important cosmological parameter.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: MD Multidisciplinary
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
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Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2017 14:14
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2017 14:14
DOI or Identification number: 10.1038/nature24471
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7564

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