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DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF PASTEURISED AND HOMOGENISED COW MILK USING MICROWAVE SENSORS

Joshi, KH (2018) DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF PASTEURISED AND HOMOGENISED COW MILK USING MICROWAVE SENSORS. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

More than 6 billion people worldwide consume milk and milk products and this number is rapidly growing every year (FAO, 2015a), there are numerous occurrences where the milk quality was below acceptable standards causing severe health hazards among consumers including young children. The aim of this research work is to design and develop a novel, microwave spectroscopy, approach for determination of overall quality of milk. In particular, this quality determination of milk products was achieved by identification of deterioration or spoilage of milk over time, classification of the milk product based on composition (e.g. fat content), in addition to the contamination (e.g. adulteration due to presence of detergents, urea). An extensive literature review was carried out to establish the scope of the PhD work and in order to achieve the objectives. Current advancements were studied along with the traditional methods of milk quality testing to identify the key areas where further development can take place to enable the quality control of milk products outside the laboratory premises. This work addresses the drawbacks in currently employed methodologies and attempts to overcome or minimize their overall limiting effect. The application of this sensor system is aimed within the milk supply-chain hierarchy after the production at dairy plants and before sale to allow easy and real-time quality testing. The dielectric property tests were conducted to produce unique spectral signatures for three mainly consumed categories of fresh milk; whole milk, semi-skimmed milk and skimmed milk bought from a supermarket over a period of a week, which served to build a reference database. Based on these spectral signatures for the three categories of milk, a planar, microwave resonator sensor acting as a fluidic sensor was designed, simulated and fabricated to determine spoilage, classification of milk and identify presence of contamination. This work has achieved distinct results to verify the statement, followed by validation, to serve as a platform for the establishment of a laboratory based prototype model to test overall quality of Milk products, with coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.95 in all experimental measurements.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electromagnetic Sensors, Microwave Spectroscopy, Milk Adulteration, Quality Monitoring, Real-time
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Built Environment
Date Deposited: 26 Sep 2018 11:06
Last Modified: 26 Sep 2018 11:07
DOI or Identification number: 10.24377/researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk.00009350
Supervisors: Shaw, A and Kot, P
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9350

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