Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

Infections with Spore-forming Bacteria in Persons Who Inject Drugs, 2000-2009

Palmateer, NE, Hope, VD, Roy, K, Marongiu, A, White, JM, Grant, KA, Ramsay, CN, Goldberg, DJ and Ncube, F (2013) Infections with Spore-forming Bacteria in Persons Who Inject Drugs, 2000-2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19 (1). ISSN 1080-6040

Infections with spore-forming bacteria in persons who inject drugs, 2000-2009.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (507kB) | Preview


Since 2000 in the United Kingdom, infections caused by spore-forming bacteria have been associated with increasing illness and death among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To assess temporal and geographic trends in these illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi infection, and anthrax), we compared rates across England and Scotland for 2000–2009. Overall, 295 infections were reported: 1.45 per 1,000 PWID in England and 4.01 per 1,000 PWID in Scotland. The higher rate in Scotland was mainly attributable to C. novyi infection and anthrax; rates of botulism and tetanus were comparable in both countries. The temporal and geographic clustering of cases of C. novyi and anthrax into outbreaks suggests possible contamination of specific heroin batches; in contrast, the more sporadic nature of tetanus and botulism cases suggests that these spores might more commonly exist in the drug supply or local environment although at varying levels. PWID should be advised about treatment programs, injecting hygiene, risks, and vaccinations.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1108 Medical Microbiology, 1117 Public Health and Health Services, 1103 Clinical Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Divisions: Public Health Institute
Publisher: U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 28 Mar 2019 11:13
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 01:57
DOI or ID number: 10.3201/eid1901.120044
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10272
View Item View Item