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Through-Life Monitoring of the impact of vibration on the reliability of area array packages using Non- Destructive Testing

Baishya, K (2019) Through-Life Monitoring of the impact of vibration on the reliability of area array packages using Non- Destructive Testing. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

In order to keep up with the demands for faster, cheaper and smaller electronics, the packaging industry has evolved tremendously. Area array packages like flip chips and ball grid arrays are therefore widely used in modern day electronics. However, from the reliability standpoint, solder joints in these area array packages are often the weakest link. In case of harsh vibration environments like military and automobile applications, joint failure mainly occurs due to the high stress incurred during extreme environmental conditions that lead to fatigue failures. This thesis aims to study the effects of real time vibration on area array packages (flip chips in particular) using acoustic micro imaging for through life monitoring of the solder joints. Since real time vibration on solder joints have not been studied before, the various steps for successful testing, through life monitoring of the solder joints and data analysis will be investigated and discussed. Based on automobile industry standards, a real time vibration profile was obtained with the help of Delphi experts, who are the industry collaborators of this project. Due to its strong capability to detect discontinuities within materials and interconnections, Acoustic Micro Imaging (AMI) also known as Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (CSAM) has been used to monitor the solder joints. This approach has not previously been used as an effective tool in monitoring solder joints through life performance in vibration testing. The research regime proposed in this thesis was to monitor the health of solder joints through ultrasound images from beginning to failure, and to see how cracks initiate and propagate in them. The effect of the relative position and orientation on the reliability of the solder joints and the flip chips in the PCB was also studied. The data collected was analysed using MATLAB. The results have shown that three types of solder joints- healthy, partially fractured or fractured are formed near the time of complete failure of a flip chip. When about 70- 80% of the flip chips are either partially fractured or fractured a flip chip is expected to fail. The mean pixel intensity and area change in the acoustic image of a partially fractured or fully fractured joint tends to be higher compared to a healthy joint. Crack initiation in a joint occurs at around 35-40% cycling and propagates linearly till 80-85% cycling after which a joint fails. A statistical analysis done on the solder joints showed that the intensity distribution of healthy joints follow a simple Gaussian distribution while that of partially fractured or fractured joint can only be represented by using a mixture of Gaussians. The solder joints near the board edges are the least reliable in a vibration environment. However, solder joints with back to back connections are more reliable than the ones placed in one sided orientation. The most reliable flip chip orientation in a vibration environment is the back to back connection with no offset which was actually found to be the least reliable in the case of thermal cycling. Based on the analysis of the results, a few design guidelines for flip chip layout and orientations in a PCB has also been proposed in this work.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Through-life monitoring; Non-Destructive Testing; Area array packages; Acoustic Micro Imaging; Real time vibration Testing
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: General Engineering Research Institute
Date Deposited: 14 May 2019 08:02
Last Modified: 14 May 2019 08:03
DOI or Identification number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00010654
Supervisors: Harvey, D, Zhang, G and Braden, D
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10654

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