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Remote Ischemic Conditioning as an Additional Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Landman, TRJ, Schoon, Y, Warlé, MC, de Leeuw, F-E and Thijssen, DHJ (2019) Remote Ischemic Conditioning as an Additional Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. ISSN 1524-4628

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Abstract

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of disability in adults worldwide and has the second highest mortality of all cardiovascular diseases[1]. The burden of stroke is likely to increase significantly during the next decades, primarily due to population growth and aging[2]. Given the detrimental impact of stroke on healthcare (costs) and patient well-being, it is imperative to explore opportunities for novel therapies to add to the current treatment to further minimize neurological injury.
During an ischemic stroke, occlusion of a cerebral artery abrogates cerebral perfusion, causing brain tissue distal from the occlusion to become deprived of oxygen and nutrients, ultimately leading to ischemic injury. Surrounding the ischemic core an area called the penumbra contains potentially reversible injured brain tissue, which may remain viable for several hours. Whilst the time window to attenuate the detrimental impact of an ischemic stroke seems limited to six hours after onset of AIS[3, 4], recent research suggests that subgroups may benefit up to 24 hours[5, 6]. This time window of 6-24 hours offers perspective for hospital-based, additional therapies to reduce ischemic injury and minimize clinical deterioration in AIS patients.
This review focuses on remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) as an additive therapy to improve clinical outcomes in AIS patients, both when applied as a single as well as repeated bouts. RIC refers to the application of several cycles of brief ischemia and reperfusion to a limb (using a blood pressure cuff). Pre-clinical work revealed this stimulus to reduce neural damage after reperfusion[7-11], validating the concept that RIC may have clinical potential in AIS. RIC therefore represents a simple, low cost therapeutic strategy that may salvage brain tissue in the penumbral area. In this review, we will summarize (pre)clinical evidence for the efficacy of RIC as an additional therapy in AIS patients.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1103 Clinical Sciences, 1102 Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology, 1109 Neurosciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Amercian Heart Association
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2019 10:03
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2019 10:15
DOI or Identification number: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025494
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10857

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