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AN INITIAL EXPLORATION OF YOUTH ELITE COACHES ́ PEDAGOGICAL BEHAVIOURS DURING VIDEO-BASED FEEDBACK SESSIONS: EXAMINING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN COACHES ́ BEHAVIOURS AND THEIR UNDERPINNING COGNITIONS.

Raya Castellano, P (2019) AN INITIAL EXPLORATION OF YOUTH ELITE COACHES ́ PEDAGOGICAL BEHAVIOURS DURING VIDEO-BASED FEEDBACK SESSIONS: EXAMINING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN COACHES ́ BEHAVIOURS AND THEIR UNDERPINNING COGNITIONS. Masters thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

A call for ‘athlete-centred’ approaches in coaching has been encouraged due to some evidence suggesting the enhancement of learning through questioning and when feedback is implicit, delayed, positive or reduced in frequency (García-González et al., 2013; Masters, 1992; Wulf et al., 2002; Wulf et al., 2010; Swinnen et al., 1990; Sherwood, 1988). However, the combination of systematic observations and qualitative interviews has evidenced that coaching is still guided by coaches ́ traditional ‘hands-on approaches’ (Ford et al., 2010), coaches ́ are not aware of their behaviours and exhibit a cognitive dissonance or epistemological gap between their behaviours and underpinning cognitions (Partington et al., 2015). Coach behaviour in football is a well-established area of research with numerous studies mostly within training sessions (Partington & Cushion, 2013; Partington et al., 2014; Ford et al., 2010; Potrac et al, 2002, 2007) and during games to a lesser extent (Partington & Cushion, 2012; Smith & Cushion, 2006). Coaching occurs within many other contexts apart from training and games and all these need to be explored in detail in order to record a complete pattern of what coaching involves (Ford et al., 2009). Nonetheless, to date there is a dearth of research on coaching behaviours within the other contexts. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the coach ́s behaviours and their underlying cognitions during the delivery of video-based feedback sessions. Twenty-two video-based feedback sessions delivered by four youth elite coaches were filmed, coded and analysed during the season 2014/2015. The Coach Analysis and Intervention System and the Arizona State University Observation Instrument were adapted in order to build an instrument that contained 16 behaviour categories that were representative of the study context. Once the tool had been created, each coach was systematically observed and mean time percentages were calculated for each of their behaviours. Subsequently, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each coach to examine the reasons for using feedback, player participation, convergent and divergent questioning, and any additional themes of interest that emerged. Qualitative data provided were organised into meaningful raw themes, first order themes and higher order themes through thematic analysis procedures. Within video-based feedback sessions, a prescriptive approach to coaching was found with ‘feedback’ as the most employed behaviour for the four coaches. This was normally ensued by ‘silence’, ‘player participation’, ‘convergent questioning’ and ‘divergent questioning’ except for one of the coaches who had ‘player participation’ as the second most utilised behaviour. Also, the four coaches had higher values of ‘convergent questioning’ compared to ‘divergent questioning’. Qualitative results demonstrated varied levels of understanding that underpinned each coach ́s ‘main coaching behaviours’ and evidence three different types of cognitive dissonance or epistemological gap between the coaches ́ behaviours and cognitions. A CPD programme could be implemented to (1) reduce ‘feedback’ and increase ‘player participation’ and questioning, (2) enhance coaches ́ understanding of behaviours that facilitate learning to a greater extent and (3) increase coaches ́ awareness of their use of these behaviours. Finally, being in possession of the FA Youth Award is now a requirement for working as a coach in a professional English football academy (The Premier League, 2017). Such course is composed by the three Youth Modules with Youth Module 3 focusing on coaching styles or coaching behaviours different to command that are beneficial for learning (TheFA, 2014). However, it seems that this only focus on coaching behaviours within training and competition. Therefore, the content of this research could be used as a framework to train coaches within this particular context.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: youth development, coaching, pedagogical behaviours, video-based feedback, mixed-method research, football.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV561 Sports > GV711 Coaching
Divisions: Sports & Exercise Sciences
Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2019 12:05
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2019 12:05
DOI or Identification number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00010873
Supervisors: McRobert, AP, Reeves, MJ and Littlewood, M
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10873

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