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Post-exercise carbohydrate and energy availability induce independent effects on skeletal muscle cell signalling and bone turnover: implications for training adaptation

Hammond, KM, Sale, C, Fraser, W, Tang, J, Shepherd, SO, Strauss, JA, Close, GL, Cocks, MS, Louis, J, Pugh, JN, Stewart, CE, Sharples, AP and Morton, JP (2019) Post-exercise carbohydrate and energy availability induce independent effects on skeletal muscle cell signalling and bone turnover: implications for training adaptation. The Journal of Physiology, 597 (18). pp. 4779-4796. ISSN 0022-3751

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Abstract

We examined the effects of post‐exercise carbohydrate (CHO) and energy availability (EA) on potent skeletal muscle cell signalling pathways (regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism) and indicators of bone metabolism. In a repeated measures design, nine males completed a morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) high‐intensity interval (HIT) (8 × 5 min at 85% urn:x-wiley:00223751:media:tjp13758:tjp13758-math-0001) running protocol (interspersed by 3.5 h) under dietary conditions of (1) high CHO availability (HCHO: CHO ∼12 g kg−1, EA∼ 60 kcal kg−1 fat free mass (FFM)), (2) reduced CHO but high fat availability (LCHF: CHO ∼3 (−1, EA∼ 60 kcal kg−1 FFM) or (3), reduced CHO and reduced energy availability (LCAL: CHO ∼3 g kg−1, EA∼ 20 kcal kg−1 FFM). Muscle glycogen was reduced to ∼200 mmol kg−1 dw in all trials immediately post PM HIT (P < 0.01) and remained lower at 17 h (171, 194 and 316 mmol kg−1 dw) post PM HIT in LCHF and LCAL (P < 0.001) compared to HCHO. Exercise induced comparable p38MAPK phosphorylation (P < 0.05) immediately post PM HIT and similar mRNA expression (all P < 0.05) of PGC‐1α, p53 and CPT1 mRNA in HCHO, LCHF and LCAL. Post‐exercise circulating βCTX was lower in HCHO (P < 0.05) compared to LCHF and LCAL whereas exercise‐induced increases in IL‐6 were larger in LCAL (P < 0.05) compared to LCHF and HCHO. In conditions where glycogen concentration is maintained within 200–350 mmol kg−1 dw, we conclude post‐exercise CHO and energy restriction (i.e. < 24 h) does not potentiate cell signalling pathways that regulate hallmark adaptations associated with endurance training. In contrast, consuming CHO before, during and after HIT running attenuates bone resorption, effects that are independent of energy availability and circulating IL‐6.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Hammond, K. M., Sale, C. , Fraser, W. , Tang, J. , Shepherd, S. O., Strauss, J. A., Close, G. L., Cocks, M. , Louis, J. , Pugh, J. , Stewart, C. , Sharples, A. P. and Morton, J. P. (2019), Post‐exercise carbohydrate and energy availability induce independent effects on skeletal muscle cell signalling and bone turnover: implications for training adaptation. J Physiol, 597: 4779-4796. doi:10.1113/JP278209, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP278209. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences, 11 Medical and Health Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sports & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2019 09:43
Last Modified: 08 Oct 2019 09:45
DOI or Identification number: 10.1113/JP278209
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/11486

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