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Energy-minimization within target-directed aiming: the mediating influence of the number of movements and target size

Roberts, JW Energy-minimization within target-directed aiming: the mediating influence of the number of movements and target size. Experimental Brain Research. ISSN 0014-4819 (Accepted)

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Abstract

In target-directed aiming, performers tend to more greatly undershoot targets when aiming down compared to up because they try to avoid an overshoot error, and subsequently minimize the time- and energy-expenditure that is required to suddenly combat gravitational forces. The present study aims to further examine this principle of time- and energyminimization by directly mediating the perceived cost of potential errors, as well as the likelihood of their occurrence by manipulating the number of movements and target size, respectively. Participants executed rapid aiming movements in the up/down direction as part of a one-/two-target movement toward a small/large target. Primary movement endpoints showed greater undershooting when aiming in the downward compared to upward direction, and small compared to large targets. Meanwhile, the overall movement time showed that slower movements were generated for down compared to up, but only when aiming toward large targets. The failure to mediate the central tendency as a function of the number of movements and target size indicates that the feature of minimization is highly prominent within the performers’ pre-response planning. However, the continued minimization of energy in the presence of large targets may inadvertently cost the movement time.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 11 Medical and Health Sciences, 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Divisions: Sports & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Springer
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2020 12:20
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2020 12:30
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12204

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