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Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance

Carswell, AT, Oliver, SJ, Wentz, LM, Kashi, DS, Roberts, R, Tang, JCY, Izard, RM, Jackson, S, Allan, D, Rhodes, LE, Fraser, WD, Greeves, JP and Walsh, NP (2018) Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50 (12). pp. 2555-2564. ISSN 1530-0315

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PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between vitamin D status and exercise performance in a large, prospective cohort study of young men and women across seasons (study 1). Then, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, to investigate the effects on exercise performance of achieving vitamin D sufficiency (serum 25(OH)D >/= 50 nmol.L) by a unique comparison of safe, simulated-sunlight and oral vitamin D3 supplementation in wintertime (study 2). METHODS: In study 1, we determined 25(OH)D relationship with exercise performance in 967 military recruits. In study 2, 137 men received either placebo, simulated sunlight (1.3x standard erythemal dose in T-shirt and shorts, three times per week for 4 wk and then once per week for 8 wk) or oral vitamin D3 (1000 IU.d for 4 wk and then 400 IU.d for 8 wk). We measured serum 25(OH)D by high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and endurance, strength and power by 1.5-mile run, maximum dynamic lift and vertical jump, respectively. RESULTS: In study 1, only 9% of men and 36% of women were vitamin D sufficient during wintertime. After controlling for body composition, smoking, and season, 25(OH)D was positively associated with endurance performance (P </= 0.01, DeltaR = 0.03-0.06, small f effect sizes): 1.5-mile run time was ~half a second faster for every 1 nmol.L increase in 25(OH)D. No significant effects on strength or power emerged (P > 0.05). In study 2, safe simulated sunlight and oral vitamin D3 supplementation were similarly effective in achieving vitamin D sufficiency in almost all (97%); however, this did not improve exercise performance (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was associated with endurance performance but not strength or power in a prospective cohort study. Achieving vitamin D sufficiency via safe, simulated summer sunlight, or oral vitamin D3 supplementation did not improve exercise performance in a randomized-controlled trial.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 1117 Public Health and Health Services
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: American College of Sports Medicine
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Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2020 11:49
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 07:43
DOI or ID number: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001721
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12469
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