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Biomarkers and in vitro strategies for nephrotoxicity and renal disease assessment

Soares, S, Souza, LCR, Cronin, MTD, Waaga-Gasser, AM, Grossi, MF, Franco, GR and Tagliati, CA (2020) Biomarkers and in vitro strategies for nephrotoxicity and renal disease assessment. Journal of Nephrology and Renal Diseases, 5 (1). ISSN 2399-908X

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Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern, impacting nearly 13.3 million patients and resulting in three million deaths per year. Chronic kidney disease has increased by 135% since 1990, representing the pathology with the fastest growth rate worldwide. The annual costs of dialysis and kidney transplants range between US$35,000 and US$100,000 per patient. Despite its great impact, kidney disease has remained mostly asymptomatic for many years. AKI continues to be a major, unmet medical condition for which there are no pharmacological treatments available, while animal models are limited to provide direction for therapeutic translation into humans. Currently, serum creatinine is the standard biomarker to identify nephrotoxicity; however, it is a late stage biomarker. Hence, there is a pressing need to study in vitro biomarkers for the assessment of nephrotoxicity in order to develop new and safer drugs. Understanding of the mechanisms by which molecules produce nephrotoxicity is vital in order to both prevent adversity and treat kidney injury. In this review, we address new technologies and models that may be used to identify earlier biomarkers and pathways involved in nephrotoxicity, such as cell culture, omics, bioinformatics platform, CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing, in silico, organoids and 3D bioprinting, considering AOP.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: OAT
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2020 09:45
Last Modified: 10 Jul 2020 09:00
DOI or Identification number: 10.15761/NRD.1000162
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12783

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