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Spatial and spatio-temporal statistical analyses of retinal images: a review of methods and applications.

Zhu, W, Kolamunnage-Dona, R, Zheng, Y, Harding, S and Czanner, G (2020) Spatial and spatio-temporal statistical analyses of retinal images: a review of methods and applications. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 5 (1). ISSN 2397-3269

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Background: Clinical research and management of retinal diseases greatly depend on the interpretation of retinal images and often longitudinally collected images. Retinal images provide context for spatial data, namely the location of specific pathologies within the retina. Longitudinally collected images can show how clinical events at one point can affect the retina over time. In this review, we aimed to assess statistical approaches to spatial and spatio-temporal data in retinal images. We also review the spatio-temporal modelling approaches used in other medical image types. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of both spatial or spatio-temporal approaches and non-spatial approaches to the statistical analysis of retinal images. The key methodological and clinical characteristics of published papers were extracted. We also investigated whether clinical variables and spatial correlation were accounted for in the analysis. Results: Thirty-four papers that included retinal imaging data were identified for full-text information extraction. Only 11 (32.4%) papers used spatial or spatio-temporal statistical methods to analyse images, others (23 papers, 67.6%) used non-spatial methods. Twenty-eight (82.4%) papers reported images collected cross-sectionally, while 6 (17.6%) papers reported analyses on images collected longitudinally. In imaging areas outside of ophthalmology, 19 papers were identified with spatio-temporal analysis, and multiple statistical methods were recorded. Conclusions: In future statistical analyses of retinal images, it will be beneficial to clearly define and report the spatial distributions studied, report the spatial correlations, combine imaging data with clinical variables into analysis if available, and clearly state the software or packages used.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: imaging; retina
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Divisions: Applied Mathematics (merged with Comp Sci 10 Aug 20)
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2020 11:18
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 07:05
DOI or ID number: 10.1136/bmjophth-2020-000479
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13214
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