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Young, healthy males and females present cardiometabolic protection against the detrimental effects of a 7-day high-fat high-calorie diet

Whytock, KL, Shepherd, SO, Cocks, MS, Wagenmakers, AJM and Strauss, JA (2020) Young, healthy males and females present cardiometabolic protection against the detrimental effects of a 7-day high-fat high-calorie diet. European Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 1436-6207

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Abstract

Purpose: High-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diets have been used as a model to investigate lipid-induced insulin resistance. Short-term HFHC diets reduce insulin sensitivity in young healthy males, but to date, no study has directly compared males and females to elucidate sex-specific differences in the effects of a HFHC diet on functional metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods: Eleven males (24 ± 4 years; BMI 23 ± 2 kg.m−2; V̇O2 peak 62.3 ± 8.7 ml.min−1.kg−1FFM) were matched to 10 females (25 ± 4 years; BMI 23 ± 2 kg.m−2; V̇O2 peak 58.2 ± 8.2 ml.min−1.kg−1FFM). Insulin sensitivity, measured via oral glucose tolerance test, metabolic flexibility, arterial stiffness, body composition and blood lipids and liver enzymes were measured before and after 7 days of a high-fat (65% energy) high-calorie (+ 50% kcal) diet.
Results: The HFHC diet did not change measures of insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility or arterial stiffness in either sex. There was a trend towards increased total body fat mass (kg) after the HFHC diet (+ 1.8% and + 2.3% for males and females, respectively; P = 0.056). In contrast to females, males had a significant increase in trunk to leg fat mass ratio (+ 5.1%; P = 0.005).
Conclusion: Lean, healthy young males and females appear to be protected from the negative cardio-metabolic effects of a 7-day HFHC diet. Future research should use a prolonged positive energy balance achieved via increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure to exacerbate negative metabolic and cardiovascular functional outcomes to determine whether sex-specific differences exist under more metabolically challenging conditions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Springer
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2020 12:15
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2020 12:15
DOI or Identification number: 10.1007/s00394-020-02357-3
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13781

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