Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

New Psychoactive Substances - A Review and Updates

Shafi, A, Berry, A, Sumnall, H, Wood, D and Tracy, D New Psychoactive Substances - A Review and Updates. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. ISSN 2045-1253 (Accepted)

New Psychoactive Substances- A Review and Updates.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (668kB) | Preview


New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous group of substances. They are associated with a number of health and social harms on an individual and societal level. NPS toxicity and dependence syndromes are recognised in primary care, emergency departments, psychiatric inpatient and community care settings. One pragmatic classification system is to divide NPS into one of four groups: synthetic stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic hallucinogens and synthetic depressants (which include synthetic opioids and benzodiazepines). We review these four classes of NPS, including their chemical structures, mechanism of action, modes of use, intended intoxicant effects, and their associated physical and mental health harms. The current challenges faced by laboratory testing for NPS are also explored, in the context of the diverse range of NPS currently available, rate of production and emergence of new substances, the different formulations, and methods of acquisition and distribution.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Accepted for publication in Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology.
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA1001 Forensic Medicine. Medical jurisprudence. Legal medicine
Divisions: Public Health Institute
Publisher: Sage Publications
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2020 12:16
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2020 12:16
DOI or Identification number: 10.1177/2045125320967197
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13897

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item