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Efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Cicero, AFG, Fogacci, F, Hernandez, AV and Banach, M (2020) Efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine, 17 (7). ISSN 1549-1676

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003121 (Published version)

Abstract

Background: Bempedoic acid is a first-in-class lipid-lowering drug recommended by guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Our objective was to estimate its average effect on plasma lipids in humans and its safety profile.
Methods and findings: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase II and III randomized controlled trials on bempedoic acid (PROSPERO: CRD42019129687). PubMed (Medline), Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were searched, with no language restriction, from inception to 5 August 2019. We included 10 RCTs (n = 3,788) comprising 26 arms (active arm [n = 2,460]; control arm [n = 1,328]). Effect sizes for changes in lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum concentration were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For safety analyses, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using the Mantel–Haenszel method. Bempedoic acid significantly reduced total cholesterol (MD −14.94%; 95% CI −17.31%, −12.57%; p < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −18.17%; 95% CI −21.14%, −15.19%; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −22.94%; 95% CI −26.63%, −19.25%; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein particle number (MD −20.67%; 95% CI −23.84%, −17.48%; p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (MD −15.18%; 95% CI −17.41%, −12.95%; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −5.83%; 95% CI −6.14%, −5.52%; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein particle number (MD −3.21%; 95% CI −6.40%, −0.02%; p = 0.049), and hsCRP (MD −27.03%; 95% CI −31.42%, −22.64%; p < 0.001). Bempedoic acid did not significantly modify triglyceride level (MD −1.51%; 95% CI −3.75%, 0.74%; p = 0.189), very-low-density lipoprotein particle number (MD 3.79%; 95% CI −9.81%, 17.39%; p = 0.585), and apolipoprotein A-1 (MD −1.83%; 95% CI −5.23%, 1.56%; p = 0.290). Treatment with bempedoic acid was positively associated with an increased risk of discontinuation of treatment (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06, 1.76; p = 0.015), elevated serum uric acid (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.03, 12.27; p = 0.045), elevated liver enzymes (OR 4.28; 95% CI 1.34, 13.71; p = 0.014), and elevated creatine kinase (OR 3.79; 95% CI 1.06, 13.51; p = 0.04), though it was strongly associated with a decreased risk of new onset or worsening diabetes (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39, 0.90; p = 0.01). The main limitation of this meta-analysis is related to the relatively small number of individuals involved in the studies, which were often short or middle term in length.
Conclusions: Our results show that bempedoic acid has favorable effects on lipid profile and hsCRP levels and an acceptable safety profile. Further well-designed studies are needed to explore its longer-term safety.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 11 Medical and Health Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Public Library of Science
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Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2021 12:32
Last Modified: 14 Jan 2021 12:32
DOI or Identification number: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003121
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14032

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