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The physical and chemical structure of high-mass star-forming regions. Unraveling chemical complexity with the NOEMA large program "CORE"

Gieser, C, Beuther, H, Semenov, D, Ahmadi, A, Suri, S, Möller, T, Beltran, MT, Klaassen, P, Zhang, Q, Urquhart, JS, Henning, T, Feng, S, Galván-Madrid, R, Magalhães, VDS, Moscadelli, L, Longmore, SN, Leurini, S, Kuiper, R, Peters, T, Menten, KM , Csengeri, T, Fuller, G, Wyrowski, F, Lumsden, S, Sánchez-Monge, Á, Maud, L, Linz, H, Palau, A, Schilke, P, Pety, J, Pudritz, R, Winters, JM and Piétu, V The physical and chemical structure of high-mass star-forming regions. Unraveling chemical complexity with the NOEMA large program "CORE". Astronomy and Astrophysics. ISSN 0004-6361 (Accepted)

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Abstract

We use sub-arcsecond resolution ($\sim$0.4$''$) observations with NOEMA at 1.37 mm to study the dust emission and molecular gas of 18 high-mass star-forming regions. We combine the derived physical and chemical properties of individual cores in these regions to estimate their ages. The temperature structure of these regions are determined by fitting H2CO and CH3CN line emission. The density profiles are inferred from the 1.37 mm continuum visibilities. The column densities of 11 different species are determined by fitting the emission lines with XCLASS. Within the 18 observed regions, we identify 22 individual cores with associated 1.37 mm continuum emission and with a radially decreasing temperature profile. We find an average temperature power-law index of q = 0.4$\pm$0.1 and an average density power-law index of p = 2.0$\pm$0.2 on scales on the order of several 1 000 au. Comparing these results with values of p derived in the literature suggest that the density profiles remain unchanged from clump to core scales. The column densities relative to N(C18O) between pairs of dense gas tracers show tight correlations. We apply the physical-chemical model MUSCLE to the derived column densities of each core and find a mean chemical age of $\sim$60 000 yrs and an age spread of 20 000-100 000 yrs. With this paper we release all data products of the CORE project available at https://www.mpia.de/core. The CORE sample reveals well constrained density and temperature power-law distributions. Furthermore, we characterize a large variety in molecular richness that can be explained by an age spread confirmed by our physical-chemical modeling. The hot molecular cores show the most emission lines, but we also find evolved cores at an evolutionary stage, in which most molecules are destroyed and thus the spectra appear line-poor again.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: C. Gieser, H. Beuther, D. Semenov, A. Ahmadi, S. Suri, T. Möller, M. Beltran, P. Klaassen, Q. Zhang, J. Urquhart, Th. Henning, S. Feng, R. Galván-Madrid, V. de Souza Magalhães, L. Moscadelli, S. Longmore, S. Leurini, R. Kuiper, T. Peters, et al. The physical and chemical structure of high-mass star-forming regions. Unraveling chemical complexity with the NOEMA large program "CORE" Astronomy & Astrophysics Forthcoming Article accepted 22/2/21 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039670
Uncontrolled Keywords: astro-ph.GA; astro-ph.GA; astro-ph.SR
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: EDP Sciences
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2021 11:15
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2021 11:15
DOI or Identification number: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039670
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14536

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