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SN 2020bvc: A Broad-line Type Ic Supernova with a Double-peaked Optical Light Curve and a Luminous X-Ray and Radio Counterpart

Ho, AYQ, Kulkarni, SR, Perley, DA, Cenko, SB, Corsi, A, Schulze, S, Lunnan, R, Sollerman, J, Gal-Yam, A, Anand, S, Barbarino, C, Bellm, EC, Bruch, RJ, Burns, E, De, K, Dekany, R, Delacroix, A, Duev, DA, Frederiks, DD, Fremling, C , Goldstein, DA, Golkhou, VZ, Graham, MJ, Hale, D, Kasliwal, MM, Kupfer, T, Laher, RR, Martikainen, J, Masci, FJ, Neill, JD, Ridnaia, A, Rusholme, B, Savchenko, V, Shupe, DL, Soumagnac, MT, Strotjohann, NL, Svinkin, DS, Taggart, K, Tartaglia, L, Yan, L and Zolkower, J (2020) SN 2020bvc: A Broad-line Type Ic Supernova with a Double-peaked Optical Light Curve and a Luminous X-Ray and Radio Counterpart. Astrophysical Journal, 902 (1). ISSN 0004-637X

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We present optical, radio, and X-ray observations of SN 2020bvc (=ASASSN-20bs, ZTF 20aalxlis), a nearby ($z=0.0252;$ d = 114 Mpc) broad-line (BL) Type Ic supernova (SN) and the first double-peaked Ic-BL discovered without a gamma-ray burst (GRB) trigger. Our observations show that SN 2020bvc shares several properties in common with the Ic-BL SN 2006aj, which was associated with the low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (LLGRB) 060218. First, the 10 GHz radio luminosity (${L}_{\mathrm{radio}}\approx {10}^{37}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$) is brighter than ordinary core-collapse SNe but fainter than LLGRB SNe such as SN 1998bw (associated with LLGRB 980425). We model our VLA observations (spanning 13–43 days) as synchrotron emission from a mildly relativistic (v gsim 0.3c) forward shock. Second, with Swift and Chandra, we detect X-ray emission (LX ≈ 1041 erg ${{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$) that is not naturally explained as inverse Compton emission or part of the same synchrotron spectrum as the radio emission. Third, high-cadence (6× night–1) data from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) show a double-peaked optical light curve, the first peak from shock cooling of extended low-mass material (mass ${M}_{e}\lt {10}^{-2}\,{M}_{\odot }$ at radius Re > 1012 cm) and the second peak from the radioactive decay of ${}^{56}\mathrm{Ni}$. SN 2020bvc is the first double-peaked Ic-BL SN discovered without a GRB trigger, so it is noteworthy that it shows X-ray and radio emission similar to LLGRB SNe. For four of the five other nearby (z lesssim 0.05) Ic-BL SNe with ZTF high-cadence data, we rule out a first peak like that seen in SN 2006aj and SN 2020bvc, i.e., that lasts ≈1 day and reaches a peak luminosity M ≈ −18. Follow-up X-ray and radio observations of Ic-BL SNe with well-sampled early optical light curves will establish whether double-peaked optical light curves are indeed predictive of LLGRB-like X-ray and radio emission.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences, 0202 Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics, 0306 Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: American Astronomical Society; IOP Publishing
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Date Deposited: 30 Mar 2021 12:11
Last Modified: 30 Mar 2021 12:15
DOI or Identification number: 10.3847/1538-4357/aba630
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14726

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