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# Me Too: Global progress in tackling continued custodial violence against women. The 10 year anniversary of the Bangkok Rules.

Van Hout, MC, Fleißner, S and Stöver, H (2021) # Me Too: Global progress in tackling continued custodial violence against women. The 10 year anniversary of the Bangkok Rules. Trauma, Violence and Abuse: a review journal. ISSN 1524-8380

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On any given day, almost 11 million people globally are deprived of their liberty. In 2020, the global female population was estimated to be 741,000, an increase of 105,000 since 2010. In order to investigate progress in the adoption of the Bangkok Rules since 2010, we conducted a legal realist assessment based on a global scoping exercise of empirical research and United Nations reporting, using detailed MESH terms across university and UN databases. We found evidence in 91 documents which directly relate to violations of the Bangkok Rules in 55 countries. By developing a realist account we document the precarious situation of incarcerated women, and continued evidence of systemic failures to protect them from custodial violence and other gender sensitive human rights breaches worldwide. Despite prison violence constituting a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, very little research (from the US, Canada, Brazil, Mexico and Australia) has been conducted on custodial violence against women since 2010. Whilst standards of detention itself is a focus of UN universal periodic review, special procedures (violence against women) and concluding observations by the UN committees, very few explicitly mentioned women, and the implications of violence against them whilst incarcerated. We highlight three central aspects which hinder the full implementation of the Bangkok Rules; the past decade of a continued invisible nature of women as prisoners in the system, the continued legitimization, normalization and trivialization of violence under the pretext of security within their daily lives; and the unawareness and disregard of international (Bangkok and others) rules.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1607 Social Work, 1701 Psychology, 1801 Law
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Public Health Institute
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Date Deposited: 19 Jul 2021 09:38
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2023 10:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1177/15248380211036067
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/15300
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