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The effects of exercise training in the cold on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular function in young healthy individuals

Miller, GD, Maxwell, JD, Thompson, A, Cable, NT, Low, DA, George, KP and Jones, H (2022) The effects of exercise training in the cold on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular function in young healthy individuals. Autonomic Neuroscience, 238. ISSN 1566-0702

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Abstract

Exercise elicits acute increases in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and provokes long-term beneficial effects on CBFv, thereby reducing cerebrovascular risk. Acute exposure to a cold stimulus also increases CBFv. We compared the impact of exercise training in cold and thermoneutral environments on CFBv, cerebrovascular function and peripheral endothelial function.
Twenty-one (16 males, 22 ± 5 years) individuals were randomly allocated to either a cold (5 °C) or thermoneutral (15 °C) exercise intervention. Exercise consisted of 50-min cycling at 70% heart rate max, three times per week for eight weeks. Transcranial Doppler was used to determine pre and post intervention CBFv, dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVRCO2). Conduit endothelial function, microvascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness were also assessed.
Cardiorespiratory fitness improved (2.91 ml.min.kg−1, 95%CI 0.49, 5.3; P = 0.02), regardless of exercise setting. Neither intervention had an impact on CBFv, CVRCO2, FMD or microvascular function (P > 0.05). There was a significant interaction between time and condition for dCA normalised gain with evidence of a decrease by 0.192%cm.s−1.%mmHg−1 (95%CI -0.318, −0.065) following training in the cold and increase (0.129%cm.s−1.%mmHg−1, 95%CI 0.011, 0.248) following training in the thermoneutral environment (P = 0.001). This was also evident for dCA phase with evidence of an increase by 0.072 rad (95%CI -0.007, 0.152) following training in the cold and decrease by 0.065 (95%CI -0.144, 0.014) radians following training in the thermoneutral environment (P = 0.02).
Both training interventions improved fitness but CBFv, CVRCO2 and peripheral endothelial function were unaltered. Exercise training in the cold improved dCA whereas thermoneutral negated dCA.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1103 Clinical Sciences, 1109 Neurosciences, 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2022 10:41
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2022 10:45
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.autneu.2022.102945
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16314

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