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The Impact of the University Environment on the Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: Evidence from Khyber Pukhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Ali, Z (2022) The Impact of the University Environment on the Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: Evidence from Khyber Pukhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract Entrepreneurship is considered a fundamental element of social and economic development. Due to its growing importance, universities around the world are using instruments like entrepreneurship support programmes, entrepreneurship development centres and business incubators for fostering entrepreneurial intentions among students. However, the empirical research focusing on investigating the impact of the university environment including entrepreneurial offerings and contextual factors on the students’ entrepreneurial intentions (SEIs) remains inconclusive and has contradictory findings. In addition, a consolidated framework that outlines both the internal and external university environmental factors remains elusive. To fill this gap, this research aims to investigate the impact of the university environment on SEIs. The main objective of this research is to identify the factors from both the internal and external environments of the universities and their impact on SEIs, with a specific focus on the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) region of Pakistan. A review of the literature led to the development of a preliminary conceptual framework based on a robust Luthje and Franke Model (LFM) developed by Luthje and Franke (2003), which provided a basis for further empirical research. The data was collected in two phases: (1) quantitative data was collected in the first phase by distributing a survey questionnaire (490 Masters-Level Students); and (2) qualitative data was gathered in the second phase via semi-structured interviews (six Directors/Heads of the Business Department in universities) and through public documents. This exercise, employing triangulation, enabled wider and deeper understanding of the research phenomenon; thus, it increased the validity of evaluation and research findings. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis using statistical software, followed by structural equation modelling to assess the model fit and perform theory testing. Similarly, NVivo software was used to analyse the collected qualitative data. Subsequently, linkages were made within and across the two research phases to obtain a deeper understanding of the research phenomena. Results from the quantitative data showed that eight independent variables (Entrepreneurial Networking and Support, Entrepreneurship Clubs, University’s Linkages with Society, Capital Availability, Economic Environment, Regulatory Environment, Structural Support and Workforce Availability) were positively and significantly related to the dependent variable, i.e., SEIs. However, four variables (Entrepreneurship Education, Supportive Faculty, Entrepreneurial Resources and Government Policies) were not significantly related to SEIs. The qualitative data also confirmed these results. Primary data from interviews and surveys and secondary data also highlighted two more factors, i.e., Triple Helix (University-Industry-Government Collaboration) and Law and Order Situation, to be affecting SEIs. Overall, the results of the current study show that the proposed model has a good explanatory power and is therefore robust in predicting the impact of the university environment on SEIs in Pakistan. This study will enrich the existing body of literature and may provide guidelines to policy makers for assessing, designing, initiating, and implementing entrepreneurship support programmes successfully. Moreover, this research contributes to the knowledge through examining the factors that might encourage or impede the SEIs among Pakistani students.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship Education; Entrepreneurship Clubs; Entrepreneurship Development; Entrepreneurial Ecosystem; Entrepreneurial Mindset; Entrepreneurial University; Political Environment; Economic Environment
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HF Commerce > HF5001 Business
H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Doctoral Management Studies (from Sep 19)
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2022 11:49
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2022 13:09
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00016395
Supervisors: Kelly, P and Nawaz, MK
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16395
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