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"Food First but Not Always Food Only": Recommendations for Using Dietary Supplements in Sport.

Close, GL, Kasper, AM, Walsh, NP and Maughan, RJ (2022) "Food First but Not Always Food Only": Recommendations for Using Dietary Supplements in Sport. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. pp. 1-16. ISSN 1526-484X

Food First but not always Food Only Recommendations for using dietary supplements in sport.pdf - Accepted Version

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The term "food first" has been widely accepted as the preferred strategy within sport nutrition, although there is no agreed definition of this and often limited consideration of the implications. We propose that food first should mean "where practically possible, nutrient provision should come from whole foods and drinks rather than from isolated food components or dietary supplements." There are many reasons to commend a food first strategy, including the risk of supplement contamination resulting in anti-doping violations. However, a few supplements can enhance health and/or performance, and therefore a food only approach could be inappropriate. We propose six reasons why a food only approach may not always be optimal for athletes: (a) some nutrients are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities in the diet, or may require excessive energy intake and/or consumption of other nutrients; (b) some nutrients are abundant only in foods athletes do not eat/like; (c) the nutrient content of some foods with established ergogenic benefits is highly variable; (d) concentrated doses of some nutrients are required to correct deficiencies and/or promote immune tolerance; (e) some foods may be difficult to consume immediately before, during or immediately after exercise; and (f) tested supplements could help where there are concerns about food hygiene or contamination. In these situations, it is acceptable for the athlete to consider sports supplements providing that a comprehensive risk minimization strategy is implemented. As a consequence, it is important to stress that the correct terminology should be "food first but not always food only."

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Manuscript has been published online as Ahead of Print: Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2022 https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2021-0335 © Human Kinetics, Inc.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 1116 Medical Physiology
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > TX341 Nutrition. Foods and food supply
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2022 10:08
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2022 10:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1123/ijsnem.2021-0335
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16504
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