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Microwave sensors for in situ monitoring of trace metals in polluted water

Frau, I, Wylie, S, Byrne, P, Onnis, P, Cullen, J, Mason, A and Korostynska, O (2021) Microwave sensors for in situ monitoring of trace metals in polluted water. Sensors, 21 (9). p. 3147. ISSN 1424-8220

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Thousands of pollutants are threatening our water supply, putting at risk human and environmental health. Between them, trace metals are of significant concern, due to their high toxicity at low concentrations. Abandoned mining areas are globally one of the major sources of toxic metals. Nowadays, no method can guarantee an immediate response for quantifying these pollu-tants. In this work, a novel technique based on microwave spectroscopy and planar sensors for in situ real-time monitoring of water quality is described. The sensors were developed to directly probe water samples, and in situ trial measurements were performed in freshwater in four polluted mining areas in the UK. Planar microwave sensors were able detect the water pollution level with an immediate response specifically depicted at three resonant peaks in the GHz range. To the au-thors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that planar microwave sensors were tested in situ, demonstrating the ability to use this method for classifying more and less polluted water using a multiple-peak approach.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Science & Technology; Physical Sciences; Technology; Chemistry, Analytical; Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Instruments & Instrumentation; Chemistry; Engineering; planar sensors; toxic metals; real-time monitoring; mining-impacted water; water quality; microwave spectroscopy; in situ measurements; REAL-TIME; HEAVY-METALS; MINE; IONS; CONTAMINATION; ZINC; SPECTROSCOPY; COPPER; ENVIRONMENT; REMEDIATION; in situ measurements; microwave spectroscopy; mining-impacted water; planar sensors; real-time monitoring; toxic metals; water quality; 0301 Analytical Chemistry; 0805 Distributed Computing; 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Analytical Chemistry; 0502 Environmental Science and Management; 0602 Ecology
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > Q Science (General)
T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Biological & Environmental Sciences (from Sep 19)
Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Publisher: MDPI AG
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 24 May 2022 13:49
Last Modified: 24 May 2022 14:00
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/s21093147
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16922
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