Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

Non-invasive phrenic nerve stimulation to avoid ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction in critical care

Keogh, C, Saavedra, F, Dubo, S, Aqueveque, P, Ortega, P, Gomez, B, Germany, E, Pinto, D, Osorio, R, Pastene, F, Poulton, A, Jarvis, J, Andrews, B and FitzGerald, JJ (2022) Non-invasive phrenic nerve stimulation to avoid ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction in critical care. Artificial Organs. pp. 1-10. ISSN 0160-564X

Non invasive phrenic nerve stimulation to avoid ventilator‐induced diaphragm dysfunction.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Background: Diaphragm muscle atrophy during mechanical ventilation begins within 24 h and progresses rapidly with significant clinical consequences. Electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerves using invasive electrodes has shown promise in maintaining diaphragm condition by inducing intermittent diaphragm muscle contraction. However, the widespread application of these methods may be limited by their risks as well as the technical and environmental requirements of placement and care. Non-invasive stimulation would offer a valuable alternative method to maintain diaphragm health while overcoming these limitations. Methods: We applied non-invasive electrical stimulation to the phrenic nerve in the neck in healthy volunteers. Respiratory pressure and flow, diaphragm electromyography and mechanomyography, and ultrasound visualization were used to assess the diaphragmatic response to stimulation. The electrode positions and stimulation parameters were systematically varied in order to investigate the influence of these parameters on the ability to induce diaphragm contraction with non-invasive stimulation. Results: We demonstrate that non-invasive capture of the phrenic nerve is feasible using surface electrodes without the application of pressure, and characterize the stimulation parameters required to achieve therapeutic diaphragm contractions in healthy volunteers. We show that an optimal electrode position for phrenic nerve capture can be identified and that this position does not vary as head orientation is changed. The stimulation parameters required to produce a diaphragm response at this site are characterized and we show that burst stimulation above the activation threshold reliably produces diaphragm contractions sufficient to drive an inspired volume of over 600 ml, indicating the ability to produce significant diaphragmatic work using non-invasive stimulation. Conclusion: This opens the possibility of non-invasive systems, requiring minimal specialist skills to set up, for maintaining diaphragm function in the intensive care setting.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: critical care; electrical stimulation; phrenic nerve; ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; Biomedical Engineering; 0903 Biomedical Engineering; 1103 Clinical Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
R Medicine > RD Surgery
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 24 May 2022 14:22
Last Modified: 24 May 2022 14:30
DOI or ID number: 10.1111/aor.14244
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16925
View Item View Item