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Cladophialophora bantiana metabolites are efficient in the larvicidal and ovicidal control of Aedes Aegypti, and Culex Quinquefasciatus and have low toxicity in zebrafish embryo

Ragavendran, C, Balasubramani, G, Tijo, C, Manigandan, V, Kweka, EJ, Karthika, P, Sivasankar, P, Thomas, A, Natarajan, D, Nakouti, I and Malafaia, G (2022) Cladophialophora bantiana metabolites are efficient in the larvicidal and ovicidal control of Aedes Aegypti, and Culex Quinquefasciatus and have low toxicity in zebrafish embryo. Science of the Total Environment, 852. ISSN 0048-9697

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Abstract

Mosquitoes' current insecticide resistance status in available public health insecticides is a serious threat to mosquito control initiatives. Microbe-based control agents provide an alternative to conventional pesticides and insecticides, as they can be more targeted than synthetic insecticides. The present study was focused on identifying and investigating the mosquitocidal potential of Cladophialophora bantiana, an endophytic fungus isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica. The Cladophialophora species was identified through phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA sequence. The isolated fungus was first evaluated for its potential to produce metabolites against Aedes aegpti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in the 1-4th instar. The secondary metabolites of mycelium extract were assessed at various test doses (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μg/mL) in independent bioassays for each instar of selected mosquito larvae. After 48 h of exposure, A. aegypti expressed LC50 values of 13.069, 18.085, 9.554, and 11.717 μg/mL and LC90 = 25.702, 30.860, 17.275, and 19.601 μg/mL; followed by C. quinquefasciatus LC50 = 14.467, 11.766, 5.934, and 7.589 μg/mL, and LC90 = 29.529, 20.767, 11.192, and 13.296 μg/mL. The mean % of ovicidal bioassay was recorded 120 h after exposure. The hatchability (%) was proportional to mycelia metabolite concentration. The enzymatic level of acetylcholinesterase in fungal mycelial metabolite treated 4th instar larvae indicated a dose-dependent pattern. The GC–MS profile of C. bantiana extracts identified five of the most abundant compounds, namely cyclobutane, trans-3-undecene-1,5-diyne, 1-bromo-2-chloro, propane, 1,2,3-trichloro-2-methyl-, 5,5,10,10-tetrachlorotricyclo, and phenol, which had the killing effect in mosquitoes. Furthermore, the C. bantiana fungus ethyl acetate extracts had a strong larvicidal action on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Finally, the toxicity test on zebrafish embryos revealed the induction of malformations only at concentrations above 1 mg/mL. Therefore, our study pioneered evidence that C. bantiana fungal metabolites effectively control A. aegypti and C. qunquefasciastus and show less lethality in zebrafish embryos at concentrations up to 500 μg/mL.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Environmental Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QL Zoology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 07 Sep 2022 10:17
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2023 00:50
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158502
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17520

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