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Maritime cybersecurity: are onboard systems ready?

Kanwal, K, Shi, W, Kontovas, CA, Yang, Z and Chang, C-H (2022) Maritime cybersecurity: are onboard systems ready? Maritime Policy and Management. pp. 1-19. ISSN 0308-8839

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Open Access URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03088... (Published version)


Recent maritime cybersecurity accidents reveal that shipping is facing increased exposure to cyber threats, especially due to the fast-growing digitalisation of the sector, leaving vessels and their onboard systems vulnerable to cyberattacks. This research aims at evaluating the relationship among the critical dimensions influencing cybersecurity performance in the maritime industry. To achieve this, six critical dimensions related to cybersecurity preparedness are first identified through literature review, namely ‘regulations’, ‘company procedures’ from a managerial perspective and ‘shipboard systems readiness’, ‘training and awareness’, ‘human factor’ and ‘compliance monitoring’ at an operation level. A Likert-scale questionnaire is designed and used to collect empirical data from 133 seafarers and shore-based staff. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is applied to examine the causal relationships between the six dimensions and shipboard cybersecurity performance. The results show that ‘regulations’ positively influence shipping companies’ cybersecurity-related ‘procedures’, which in turn positively affects ‘shipboard systems readiness’, ‘training and awareness’, and ‘monitoring’. Further, ‘training and awareness’ positively influences the cybersecurity performance of ships. The results have profound implications for the shipping industry on how to strengthen their cyber practices in order to improve their cybersecurity performance. Recommendations for future academic research related to maritime cybersecurity are also provided.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Logistics & Transportation; 14 Economics; 15 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services; 16 Studies in Human Society
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD28 Management. Industrial Management
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD61 Risk Management
H Social Sciences > HE Transportation and Communications
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2022 10:48
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2022 11:00
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/03088839.2022.2124464
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17604
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