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Restoring the orangutan in a Whole- or Half-Earth context

Meijaard, E, Sheil, D, Sherman, J, Chua,, L, Ni'matullah, S, Wilson, K, Ancrenaz, M, Liswanto, D, Wich, SA, Goosens, B, Kühl, HS, Voigt, M, Rayadin, Y, Kurniawan, Y, Trianto, A, Priatna, D, Banes, GL, Massingham, E, Payne, J and Marshall, AJ (2022) Restoring the orangutan in a Whole- or Half-Earth context. Oryx: journal of fauna and flora international. ISSN 0030-6053

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Various global-scale proposals exist to reduce the loss of biological diversity. These include the Half-Earth and Whole-Earth visions that respectively seek to set aside half the planet for wildlife conservation or to diversify conservation practices fundamentally and change the economic systems that determine environmental harm. Here we assess these visions in the specific context of Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus and their conservation. Using an expert-led process we explored three scenarios over a 10-year time frame: continuation of Current Conditions, a Half-Earth approach and a Whole-Earth approach. In addition, we examined a 100-year population recovery scenario assuming 0% offtake of Bornean orangutans. Current Conditions were predicted to result in a population c. 73% of its current size by 2032. Half-Earth was judged comparatively easy to achieve and predicted to result in an orangutan population of c. 87% of its current size by 2032. Whole-Earth was anticipated to lead to greater forest loss and ape killing, resulting in a prediction of c. 44% of the current orangutan population for 2032. Finally, under the recovery scenario, populations could be c. 148% of their current size by 2122. Although we acknowledge uncertainties in all of these predictions, we conclude that the Half-Earth and Whole-Earth visions operate along different timelines, with the implementation of Whole-Earth requiring too much time to benefit orangutans. None of the theorized proposals provided a complete solution, so drawing elements from each will be required. We provide recommendations for equitable outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0502 Environmental Science and Management; 0602 Ecology; 0608 Zoology; Ecology
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Biological & Environmental Sciences (from Sep 19)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2022 10:01
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2022 10:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1017/S003060532200093X
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17827
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