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Anthropometric Measures and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Is there an Opportunity for Non-Traditional Anthropometric Assessment? A Review

Carrión-Martínez, A, Buckley, B, Orenes-Piñero, E, Marín, F, Lip, G and Rivera-Caravaca, J (2022) Anthropometric Measures and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Is there an Opportunity for Non-Traditional Anthropometric Assessment? A Review. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, 23 (12). ISSN 1530-6550

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm2312414 (Published version)


Background: Several anthropometric measurements are used to assess cardiovascular risk and progress during clinical treatment. Most commonly used anthropometric measurements include total body weight and body mass index (BMI), with several other simple anthropometric measures typically underused in clinical practice. Herein, we review the evidence on the relationship between different anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk in patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods: Data for this review were identified by searches in PubMed, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles by using appropriate and related terms. The last search was performed on June 22, 2022. Articles published in English and Spanish were reviewed and included, if appropriate. We included studies detailing the relationship between skinfolds thickness, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and Conicity index with cardiovascular risk in adults with/without CVD.
Results: In patients from the general population, elevated subscapular and triceps skinfolds showed a positive relationship with the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. A higher subscapular skinfold was also associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. A higher WHR, as well as other less common anthropometric measurements such as the Conicity index, was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, incident CVD, major adverse cardiovascular events, and mortality in both patients with and without previous CVD.
Conclusions: Non-traditional anthropometric measurements including skinfolds and WHR seem to improve the prediction of cardiovascular risk in the general population, and recurrent events in patients with previous CVD. Use of additional anthropometric techniques according to an objective and standardized method, may aid cardiovascular risk stratification in patients from the general population and the evaluation of therapeutic interventions for patients with CVD.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cardiovascular System & Hematology
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: IMR Press
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2022 10:03
Last Modified: 03 Jan 2023 11:00
DOI or ID number: 10.31083/j.rcm2312414
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18188
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