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Quantifying 3D range of motion using off-the-shelf, low-cost cameras

Jackson, N (2023) Quantifying 3D range of motion using off-the-shelf, low-cost cameras. Masters thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Reliable reconstructions of the joint ranges of motion (ROM) of fossil archosaurs are important in establishing aspects of their appearance, behaviours and palaeoecology. These studies are complicated, however, by the fact that soft tissues, which markedly affect ROM, rarely fossilise. Whilst early reports paid this little attention, there has been a recent shift to using comparisons with the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, along with osteological correlates, to account for missing soft tissue in ROM estimates.
The digital revolution in palaeontology has enabled a new insight into these analyses, enabling researchers to conduct range of motion studies freed from the limitations of handling large, heavy and often fragile bones. Advanced workflows such as XROMM (X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology) have enabled the integration of skeletal kinematics and 3D bone models to reconstruct 3D motion in a wide range of species.
Whilst traditionally, methods of digitisation and analysis were prohibitively complicated or expensive, researchers have been working on low-cost, easy-to-use methods of digitisation and analysis in order to widen the scope of these studies and enable them to be used by researchers of all disciplines.
This study presents a low-cost, easy-to-use workflow applying XROMM methods and photogrammetry to an experimental setup involving two off-the-shelf GoPro cameras and easy-to-use software. The workflow’s effectiveness is evaluated a) using a LEGO wand with markers placed at a known distance to assess the setup’s ability to produce accurate and precise results and b) ascertain the workflow’s effectiveness on biological data through the dissection of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) foot.
It can be concluded that, whilst the workflow retains XROMM’s ability to produce highly accurate and precise results and is potentially effective on biological data, from multiple limitations in the biological data results, it is clear that the workflow is in need of a considerable deal of refinement before it can be considered truly effective.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Range of motion; Photogrammetry; XROMM; XMALab; Autodesk Maya; GoPro
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Q Science > QE Geology > QE701 Paleontology
Divisions: Biological & Environmental Sciences (from Sep 19)
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2023 09:59
Last Modified: 17 Feb 2023 14:35
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00018844
Supervisors: Falkingham, P and Camp, A
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18844
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