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Accuracy and Precision of a Novel Photogate System to Measure Toe Clearance on Stairs

Skervin, TK, Thomas, NM, Schofield, AJ, Hollands, MA, Maganaris, CN, O’Brien, TD, Baltzopoulos, V and Foster, RJ (2023) Accuracy and Precision of a Novel Photogate System to Measure Toe Clearance on Stairs. Sensors, 23 (5).

Skervin et al (2023) Accuracy & precision of novel photogate system to measure toe clearance on stairs.pdf - Published Version
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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052429 (Published Version)


Background: Toe clearance on stairs is typically measured using optoelectronic systems, though these are often constrained to the laboratory, due to their complex setups. Here we measured stair toe clearance through a novel prototype photogate setup and compared this to optoelectronic measurements.
Methods: Twelve participants (age 22 ± 3 years) completed 25 stair ascent trials, each on a seven-step staircase. Toe clearance over the fifth step edge was measured using Vicon and the photogates. Twenty-two photogates were created in rows through laser diodes and phototransistors. The height of the lowest photogate broken at step-edge crossing was used to determine photogate toe clearance. A limits of agreement analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient compared the accuracy, precision and relationship between systems.
Results: We found a mean difference of −1.5 mm (accuracy) between the two measurement systems, with upper and lower limits (precision) of 10.7 mm and −13.8 mm, respectively. A strong positive correlation was also found (r = 70, n = 12, p = 0.009) between the systems.
Discussion: The results suggest that photogates could be an option for measuring real-world stair toe clearances, where optoelectronic systems are not routinely used. Improvements to the design and measurement factors may help to improve the precision of the photogates.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0301 Analytical Chemistry; 0502 Environmental Science and Management; 0602 Ecology; 0805 Distributed Computing; 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Analytical Chemistry
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: MDPI AG
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2023 12:37
Last Modified: 06 Mar 2023 12:37
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/s23052429
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19035
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