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Human skeletal muscle methylome after low carbohydrate energy balanced exercise

Gorski, P, Turner, D, Iraki, J, Morton, J, Sharples, A and Areta, J (2023) Human skeletal muscle methylome after low carbohydrate energy balanced exercise. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism. ISSN 0193-1849

Gorski et al. AJPEndo 2023 Methylation ED vs EB(LCHF).pdf - Accepted Version

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We aimed to investigate the human skeletal muscle (SkM) DNA methylome after exercise in low carbohydrate (CHO) energy balance (with high fat) compared with exercise in low-CHO energy deficit (with low fat) conditions. The objective to identify novel epigenetically regulated genes and pathways associated with 'train-low sleep-low' paradigms. The sleep-low conditions included 9 males that cycled to deplete muscle glycogen while reaching a set energy expenditure. Post-exercise, low-CHO meals (protein-matched) completely replaced (using high-fat) or only partially replaced (low-fat) the energy expended. The following morning resting baseline biopsies were taken and the participants then undertook 75 minutes of cycling exercise, with skeletal muscle biopsies collected 30 minutes and 3.5 hours post exercise. Discovery of genome-wide DNA methylation was undertaken using Illumina EPIC arrays and targeted gene expression analysis was conducted by RT-qPCR. At baseline participants under energy balance (high fat) demonstrated a predominantly hypermethylated (60%) profile across the genome compared to energy deficit-low fat conditions. However, post exercise performed in energy balance (with high fat) elicited a more prominent hypomethylation signature 30 minutes post-exercise in gene regulatory regions important for transcription (CpG islands within promoter regions) compared with exercise in energy deficit (with low fat) conditions. Such hypomethylation was enriched within pathways related to: IL6-JAK-STAT signalling, metabolic processes, p53 / cell cycle and oxidative / fatty acid metabolism. Hypomethylation within the promoter regions of genes: HDAC2, MECR, IGF2 and c13orf16 were associated with significant increases in gene expression in the post-exercise period in energy balance compared with energy deficit. Furthermore, histone deacetylase, HDAC11 was oppositely regulated at the gene expression level compared with HDAC2, where HDAC11 was hypomethylated yet increased in energy deficit compared with energy balance conditions. Overall, we identify some novel epigenetically regulated genes associated with train-low sleep-low paradigms.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ©American Psychological Association, 2023. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. The final article is available, upon publication, at: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00029.2023
Uncontrolled Keywords: HDAC; exercise; low CHO; methylome; 06 Biological Sciences; 11 Medical and Health Sciences; Endocrinology & Metabolism
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV561 Sports
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: American Physiological Society
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2023 12:23
Last Modified: 05 Apr 2024 00:50
DOI or ID number: 10.1152/ajpendo.00029.2023
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19263
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