Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

Prevalence and incidence of alcohol dependence: cross-sectional primary care analysis in Liverpool, UK

Montgomery, C, Schoetensack, C, Saini, P, Owens, L, Van Ginneken, N, Rice, M, Young, R and Jones, A (2023) Prevalence and incidence of alcohol dependence: cross-sectional primary care analysis in Liverpool, UK. BMJ Open, 13 (4). ISSN 2044-6055

BMJ_Open.full.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

Download (682kB) | Preview


Objectives: Liverpool has high prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) compared with the rest of the UK. Early identification and referral in primary care would improve treatment for people with AUD. This study aimed to identify changes in prevalence and incidence of AUD in primary care in Liverpool, to identify local need for specialist services.
Design: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of electronic health records.
Setting: National Health Service (NHS) Liverpool Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) primary care. In total, 62 of the 86 general practitioner (GP) practices agreed to share their anonymised Egton Medical Information Systems (EMIS) data from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2021.
Participants: Patients aged over 18 years with a SNOMED code for alcohol dependence (AD) or hazardous drinking (N=4936). Patients were excluded if they had requested that their data was not to be shared, and practices were excluded if they opted out (N=2) or did not respond to the data sharing request (N=22).
Primary and secondary outcomes: Prevalence and incidence of AUD diagnoses in primary care over the 5-year period; demographic profile of patients (sex, age, ethnicity, occupation); GP postcode; alcohol-related medications; and psychiatric and physical comorbidities.
Results: There were significant decreases in incidence of AD and hazardous drinking diagnoses over the 5 years (p<0.001 in all cases). Prevalence showed less change over time. Diagnoses were significantly higher in more deprived areas (Indices of Multiple Deprivation decile 1 vs 2–10). Overall pharmacotherapy prescriptions were lower than national estimates.
Conclusions: There are low levels of identification of AUDs in primary care in Liverpool, and this is decreasing year on year. There was weak evidence to suggest patients in the most deprived areas are less likely to receive pharmacotherapy once diagnosed. Future research should seek to investigate practitioner and patient perspectives on barriers and facilitators to management of AUDs in primary care.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1103 Clinical Sciences; 1117 Public Health and Health Services; 1199 Other Medical and Health Sciences
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Psychology (from Sep 2019)
Publisher: BMJ
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2023 10:30
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2023 10:32
DOI or ID number: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-071024
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19400
View Item View Item