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Limit on Supernova Emission in the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst, GRB 221009A

Shrestha, M, Sand, DJ, Alexander, KD, Bostroem, KA, Hosseinzadeh, G, Pearson, J, Aghakhanloo, M, Vinkó, J, Andrews, JE, Jencson, JE, Lundquist, MJ, Wyatt, S, Howell, DA, McCully, C, Gonzalez, EP, Pellegrino, C, Terreran, G, Hiramatsu, D, Newsome, M, Farah, J , Jha, SW, Smith, N, Wheeler, JC, Martínez-Vázquez, C, Carballo-Bello, JA, Drlica-Wagner, A, James, DJ, Mutlu-Pakdil, B, Stringfellow, GS, Sakowska, JD, Noël, NED, Bom, CR and Kuehn, K (2023) Limit on Supernova Emission in the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst, GRB 221009A. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 946 (1). ISSN 2041-8205

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We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the extraordinary gamma-ray burst (GRB) 221009A in search of an associated supernova. Some past GRBs have shown bumps in the optical light curve that coincide with the emergence of supernova spectral features, but we do not detect any significant light-curve features in GRB 221009A, nor do we detect any clear sign of supernova spectral features. Using two well-studied GRB-associated supernovae (SN 2013dx, M r , max = − 19.54 ; SN 2016jca, M r , max = − 19.04 ) at a similar redshift as GRB 221009A (z = 0.151), we modeled how the emergence of a supernova would affect the light curve. If we assume the GRB afterglow to decay at the same rate as the X-ray data, the combination of afterglow and a supernova component is fainter than the observed GRB brightness. For the case where we assume the best-fit power law to the optical data as the GRB afterglow component, a supernova contribution should have created a clear bump in the light curve, assuming only extinction from the Milky Way. If we assume a higher extinction of E(B − V) = 1.74 mag (as has been suggested elsewhere), the supernova contribution would have been hard to detect, with a limit on the associated supernova of M r , max ≈ − 19.54. We do not observe any clear supernova features in our spectra, which were taken around the time of expected maximum light. The lack of a bright supernova associated with GRB 221009A may indicate that the energy from the explosion is mostly concentrated in the jet, leaving a lower energy budget available for the supernova.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences; Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2023 11:23
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2023 11:30
DOI or ID number: 10.3847/2041-8213/acbd50
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19842
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