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Direct and indirect impact of low energy availability on sports performance

Melin, A, Areta, J, Heikura, I, Stellingwerff, T, Torstveit, M and Hackney, A (2023) Direct and indirect impact of low energy availability on sports performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. ISSN 0905-7188

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Low energy availability (LEA) occurs inadvertently and purposefully in many athletes across numerous sports; and well planned, supervised periods with moderate LEA can improve body composition and power to weight ratio possibly enhancing performance in some sports. LEA however has the potential to have negative effects on a multitude of physiological and psychological systems in female and male athletes. Systems such as the endocrine, cardiovascular, metabolism, reproductive, immune, mental perception, and motivation as well as behaviors can all be impacted by severe (serious and/or prolonged or chronic) LEA. Such widely diverse effects can influence the health status, training adaptation, and performance outcomes of athletes leading to both direct changes (e.g., decreased strength and endurance) as well as indirect changes (e.g., reduced training response, increased risk of injury) in performance. To date, performance implications have not been well examined relative to LEA. Therefore, the intent of this narrative review is to characterize the effects of short-, medium-, and long-term exposure to LEA on direct and indirect sports performance outcomes. In doing so we have focused both on laboratory settings as well as descriptive athletic case-study-type experiential evidence.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: REDs; illness; injuries; low carbohydrate availability; 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences; 1116 Medical Physiology; Sport Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2023 15:34
Last Modified: 07 Jul 2023 15:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1111/sms.14327
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/20280
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