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B-fields and Dust in Interstellar Filaments Using Dust Polarization (BALLAD-POL). I. The Massive Filament G11.11–0.12 Observed by SOFIA/HAWC+

Ngoc, NB, Diep, PN, Hoang, T, Tram, LN, Giang, NC, Le, N, Hoang, TD, Phuong, NT, Khang, NM, Nguyen, DD and Truong, B (2023) B-fields and Dust in Interstellar Filaments Using Dust Polarization (BALLAD-POL). I. The Massive Filament G11.11–0.12 Observed by SOFIA/HAWC+. The Astrophysical Journal, 953 (1). p. 66. ISSN 0004-637X

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We report the first measurement of polarized thermal dust emission toward the entire infrared dark cloud G11.11−0.12 taken by the polarimeter SOFIA/HAWC+ at 214 μm. The obtained magnetic fields (B-fields) from the polarized emission of the early-stage and massive filament tend to be perpendicular to its spine. We produce a map of B-field strengths for the center region of the filament. The strengths vary in the range of 100–600 μG and are strongest along the filament's spine. The central region is sub-Alfvénic and mostly subcritical, meaning that B-fields dominate over turbulence and are strong enough to resist gravitational collapse. The alignment and properties of dust grains in the filament are studied using radiative torque (RAT) theory. We find the decrease of polarization degree P with emission intensity I, i.e., depolarization effect, of the form P∝ I−α ∼ 0.8–0.9, implying a significant loss of grain alignment in the filament's spine. The depolarization can be explained by the decrease in RAT alignment efficiency toward the denser regions with weaker radiation field, which cannot be explained by B-field tangling. We study the effect of the enhanced magnetic relaxation by embedded iron inclusions on RAT alignment and find that the high polarization fraction P ∼ 20%–30% in the outer layer of the filament is potential evidence for the magnetically enhanced RAT alignment mechanism. This is the first time this effect is evaluated in a filament. Based on the polarization fraction and RAT alignment theory, we also find evidence for grain growth in the filament.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences; 0202 Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics; 0306 Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural); Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2023 13:44
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2023 10:15
DOI or ID number: 10.3847/1538-4357/acdb6e
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/22117
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