Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

Seasonal variations and other changes in the geographical distributions of different cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Togo and Benin

Cheke, RA, Post, RJ and Boakye, DA (2023) Seasonal variations and other changes in the geographical distributions of different cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Togo and Benin. Acta Tropica, 245. pp. 1-8. ISSN 0001-706X

1-s2.0-S0001706X23001572-main.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (5MB) | Preview


Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Togo and Benin, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental changes (e.g. creation of dams, deforestation), with potential epidemiological consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in Togo and Benin and report changes observed from 1975 to 2018. The elimination of the Djodji form of S. sanctipauli in south-western Togo in 1988 seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S. yahense. Although we report a general tendency for long-term stability in most cytospecies’ distributions, we also assess how the cytospecies’ geographical distributions have fluctuated and how they vary with the seasons. In addition to seasonal expansions of geographical ranges by all species except S. yahense, there are seasonal variations in the relative abundances of cytospecies within a year. In the lower Mono river, the Beffa form of S. soubrense predominates in the dry season but is replaced as the dominant taxon in the rainy season by S. damnosum s.str. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savanna cytospecies in southern Togo (1975–1997), but our data had little power to support (or refute) suggestions of a continuing increase, partly because of a lack of recent sampling. In contrast, the construction of dams and other environmental changes including climate change seem to be leading to decreases in the populations of S. damnosum s.l. in Togo and Benin. If so, combined with the disappearance of the Djodji form of S. sanctipauli, a potent vector, plus historic vector control actions and community directed treatments with ivermectin, onchocerciasis transmission in Togo and Benin is much reduced compared with the situation in 1975.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals; Simuliidae; Onchocerciasis; Seasons; Insect Vectors; Benin; Togo; Benin; Change; Cytospecies distribution; Onchocerciasis; Simulium damnosum; Simulium sanctipauli; Simulium sirbanum; Simulium soubrense; Simulium squamosum; Simulium yahense; Stability; Togo; Animals; Simuliidae; Seasons; Togo; Onchocerciasis; Benin; Insect Vectors; 06 Biological Sciences; 11 Medical and Health Sciences; Tropical Medicine
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Biological & Environmental Sciences (from Sep 19)
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 19 Mar 2024 15:32
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2024 15:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2023.106970
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/22857
View Item View Item