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Temperature Impact in Electromagnetic Non-Invasive Water/Oil/Gas Multiphase Real Time Monitoring

Almuradi, S, Abdul Rasool, AA, Alkafaji, D, Ateeq, M and Al-Shamma'a, A (2015) Temperature Impact in Electromagnetic Non-Invasive Water/Oil/Gas Multiphase Real Time Monitoring. ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, 3 (5). pp. 512-527. ISSN 2321 2462

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The measurement of the reflected S-parameter (S11) for multiphase (liquid-liquid-gas) 10-60% water, 70-20% oil and 20% gas (air) in volume are monitored using an electromagnetic microwave resonation method at a frequency range of 1-6 GHz. The measurements were examined at variable temperature ranges from 5-60 oC that were stepped by 5 oC. Clear shifts are observed in three resonant peaks of the S-parameter measurements as a volume fraction of mixture constituents. These are changed by 10% per step. The two frequency type (horizontal) S11 shifts take place at main (4 GHz frequency) and around 5 GHz frequency resonant peaks and one power type (vertical) shift at 5.45 GHz frequency resonant peak. When the temperature is held constant, the S11 values for all resonant peaks increase as WVF (water volume fraction) in the mixture increases. When WVF is held constant, the values of S11 increase as the temperature increases for around 5 GHz, 5.45 GHz frequency peaks and decreases for main peak. The results are validated by HFSS simulation executed for all tested volume fractions at 5 and 60 oC. For verification, a complete simulation is carried out at 40-40-20 percent of water-oil-gas and compared with experimental results at 5 oC intervals from 5-60 oC. The experimental results agreed well with theoretical predictions that simulated the HFSS software package with a maximum error of 1.91% for 5 oC mixtures and 1.13% for 60 oC mixtures at the main peak and 5.4% for 5 oC mixtures and 6.01% for 60 oC mixtures at 5.45 GHz peak. The study shows that the S11 measurements can be used as a dependent method to specify both the phase fraction of the multiphase mixture as well as its salinity and temperature.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Publisher: Asian Online Journals
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Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2015 13:22
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 13:49
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2338
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