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The Effect of Water Immersion during Exercise on Cerebral Blood Flow

Pugh, CJA, Sprung, VS, Ono, K, Spence, AL, Thijssen, DHJ, Carter, HH and Green, DJ (2015) The Effect of Water Immersion during Exercise on Cerebral Blood Flow. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47 (2). pp. 299-306. ISSN 1530-0315

MSSE Pugh et al Manuscript Cerebral perfusion & water-based exercise 25 03 2014.pdf - Accepted Version

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Introduction: Regular exercise induces recurrent increases in cerebrovascular perfusion. In peripheral arteries, such episodic increases in perfusion are responsible for improvement in arterial function and health. We examined the hypothesis that exercise during immersion augments cerebral blood flow velocity compared with intensity-matched land-based exercise.

Methods: Fifteen normotensive participants were recruited (26 ± 4 yr, 24.3 ± 1.9 kg·m−2). We continuously assessed mean arterial blood pressure, HR, stroke volume, oxygen consumption, and blood flow velocities through the middle and posterior cerebral arteries before, during, and after 20-min bouts of water- and land-based stepping exercise of matched intensity. The order in which the exercise conditions were performed was randomized between subjects. Water-based exercise was performed in 30°C water to the level of the right atrium.

Results: The water- and land-based exercise bouts were closely matched for oxygen consumption (13.3 mL·kg−1·min−1 (95% confidence interval (CI), 12.2–14.6) vs 13.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 (95% CI, 12.1–14.8), P = 0.89) and HR (95 bpm (95% CI, 90–101) vs 96 bpm (95% CI, 91–102), P = 0.65). Compared with land-based exercise, water-based exercise induced an increase in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (74 cm·s−1 (95% CI, 66–81) vs 67 cm·s−1 (95% CI, 60–74) P < 0.001), posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity (47 cm·s−1 (95% CI, 40–53) vs 43 cm·s−1 (95% CI, 37–49), P < 0.001), mean arterial blood pressure (106 mm Hg (95% CI, 100–111) vs 101 mm Hg (95% CI, 95–106), P < 0.001), and partial pressure of expired CO2 (P ≤ 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that water-based exercise augments cerebral blood flow, relative to land-based exercise of similar intensity, in healthy humans.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: February 2015 - Volume 47 - Issue 2 - p 299–306
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1106 Human Movement And Sports Science
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: American College of Sports Medicine
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Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2016 11:47
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 13:35
DOI or ID number: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000422
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2700
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