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Evaluating noninvasive markers of nonhuman primate immune activation and inflammation.

Higham, JP, Kraus, C, Stahl-Hennig, C, Engelhardt, A, Fuchs, D and Heistermann, M (2015) Evaluating noninvasive markers of nonhuman primate immune activation and inflammation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 158 (4). pp. 673-684. ISSN 1096-8644

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OBJECTIVES: Health, disease, and immune function are key areas of research in studies of ecology and evolution, but work on free-ranging primates has been inhibited by a lack of direct noninvasive measures of condition. Here, we evaluate the potential usefulness of noninvasive measurement of three biomarkers, the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin, and neopterin, a by-product of macrophage activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We took advantage of veterinary checks on captive rhesus (24) and long-tailed (3) macaques at the German Primate Center (DPZ) to analyze serum marker measures, before measuring concentrations in feces and urine, and evaluating relationships between matched serum, urine, and fecal concentrations. In a second study, we monitored excretion of these markers in response to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and surgical tissue trauma, undertaken for a separate study. RESULTS: We found that each biomarker could be measured in each matrix. Serum and urinary concentrations of neopterin were strongly and significantly correlated, but neither haptoglobin nor CRP concentrations in excreta proxied circulating serum concentrations. Our infection study confirmed that urinary neopterin, in particular, is a reliable marker of viral infection in macaques, but also indicated the potential of urinary and fecal CRP and haptoglobin as indicators of inflammation. DISCUSSION: We highlight the potential of noninvasive markers of immune function, especially of urinary neopterin, which correlates strongly with serum neopterin, and is highly responsive to infection. Am J Phys Anthropol 158:673-684, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Higham, J. P., Kraus, C., Stahl-Hennig, C., Engelhardt, A., Fuchs, D. and Heistermann, M. (2015), Evaluating noninvasive markers of nonhuman primate immune activation and inflammation. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 158: 673–684, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22821. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0603 Evolutionary Biology, 1601 Anthropology, 2101 Archaeology
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GN Anthropology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Natural Sciences & Psychology (closed 31 Aug 19)
Publisher: Wiley
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Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2016 14:27
Last Modified: 03 Aug 2022 08:42
DOI or ID number: 10.1002/ajpa.22821
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3193
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