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The individual and combined effects of obesity- and ageing-induced systemic inflammation on human skeletal muscle properties.

Erskine, RM, Tomlinson, DJ, Morse, CI, Winwood, K, Hampson, P, Lord, JM and Onambélé, GL (2016) The individual and combined effects of obesity- and ageing-induced systemic inflammation on human skeletal muscle properties. International Journal of Obesity. ISSN 0307-0565

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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, elevated with increased fat mass and ageing, were associated with muscle properties in young and older people with variable adiposity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-five young (18-49 yrs) and 67 older (50-80 yrs) healthy, untrained men and women (BMI: 17-49 kg/m(2)) performed isometric and isokinetic plantar flexor maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs). Volume (Vm), fascicle pennation angle (FPA), and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle were measured using ultrasonography. Voluntary muscle activation (VA) was assessed using electrical stimulation. GM specific force was calculated as GM fascicle force/PCSA. Percentage body fat (BF%), body fat mass (BFM), and lean mass (BLM) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentration of 12 cytokines was measured using multiplex luminometry. RESULTS: Despite greater Vm, FPA, and PCSA (P<0.05), young individuals with BF% ⩾40 exhibited 37% less GM specific force compared to young BF% <40 (P<0.05). Older adults with BF% ⩾40 showed greater isokinetic MVC compared to older BF% <40 (P=0.019) but this was reversed when normalised to body mass (P<0.001). IL-6 correlated inversely with VA in young (r=-0.376; P=0.022) but not older adults (P>0.05), while IL-8 correlated with VA in older but not young adults (r⩾0.378, P⩽0.027). TNF-alpha correlated with MVC, lean mass, GM FPA and maximum force in older adults (r⩾0.458; P⩽0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The age- and adiposity-dependent relationships found here provide evidence that circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines may play different roles in muscle remodelling according to the age and adiposity of the individual.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 29 August 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.151.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 11 Medical And Health Sciences, 13 Education
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Macmillan Publishers
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Date Deposited: 05 Sep 2016 08:41
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 12:34
DOI or ID number: 10.1038/ijo.2016.151
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/4089
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