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IPTF14yb: The first discovery of a gamma-ray burst afterglow independent of a high-energy trigger

Cenko, SB, Urban, AL, Perley, DA, Horesh, A, Corsi, A, Fox, DB, Cao, Y, Kasliwal, MM, Lien, A, Arcavi, I, Bloom, JS, Butler, NR, Cucchiara, A, Diego, JAD, Filippenko, AV, Gal-Yam, A, Gehrels, N, Georgiev, L, González, JJ, Graham, JF , Greiner, J, Kann, DA, Klein, CR, Knust, F, Kulkarni, SR, Kutyrev, A, Laher, R, Lee, WH, Nugent, PE, Xavier Prochaska, J, Ramirez-Ruiz, E, Richer, MG, Rubin, A, Urata, Y, Varela, K, Watson, AM and Wozniak, PR (2015) IPTF14yb: The first discovery of a gamma-ray burst afterglow independent of a high-energy trigger. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 803 (2). ISSN 2041-8205

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We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous(Mr ≈ -27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based onprobabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow ofthe long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRBafterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate ofiPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferringan all-sky value of Rrel = 610 yr?1 (68% confidence interval of 1102000 yr?1). Our derived rate is consistent(within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, webriefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide orphan afterglows (i.e., those lackingdetectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2017 09:15
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 04:04
DOI or ID number: 10.1088/2041-8205/803/2/L24
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5693
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