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Numerical Investigation on Using an Electromagnetic Wave Sensor to Detect Water Hardness in Water Cooling System Industry

Teng, KH, Ateeq, M, Shaw, A, Al-Shamma'a, A, Kazi, SN, Chew, BT and Kot, P (2017) Numerical Investigation on Using an Electromagnetic Wave Sensor to Detect Water Hardness in Water Cooling System Industry. International Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications, 7 (2). pp. 38-47. ISSN 2168-5037

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Numerical study of using novel electromagnetic wave technique to detect water hardness concentration has been presented in this paper. Simulation is powerful and efficient engineering methods which allows for a quick and accurate prediction of various engineering problems. The RF module is used in this research to predict and design electromagnetic wave propagation and resonance effects of a guided wave to detect water hardness concentration in term of frequency domain, eigenfrequency and mode analysis. A cylindrical cavity resonator is simulated and designed in the electric field of fundamental mode (TM010). With the finite volume method, the three-dimensional governing equations were discretized. Boundary conditions for the simulation were the cavity materials as aluminum, two ports which include transmitting and receiving port, and assumption of vacuum inside the cavity. The designed model was success to simulate a fundamental mode and extract S21 transmission signal within 2.1 GHz – 2.8 GHz regions. The signal spectrum under effects of port selection technique and dielectric properties of different water concentration were studied. It is observed that the linear reduction of magnitude in frequency domain when concentration increase. The numerical results were validated closely by the experimental available data. Hence, conclusion of the available COMSOL simulation package is capable of providing acceptable data for microwave research.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Numerical and experimental; Electromagnetic wave technique; Water hardness concentration; Signal spectrum; Eigenfrequency; Frequency domain
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Civil Engineering (merged with Built Env 10 Aug 20)
Publisher: Scientific & Academic Publishing
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2017 11:16
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 11:16
DOI or ID number: 10.5923/j.ijea.20170702.03
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7024
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