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Real-Time Microwave, Dielectric, and Optical Sensing of Lincomycin and Tylosin Antibiotics in Water: Sensor Fusion for Environmental Safety

Mason, A, Soprani, M, Korostynska, O, Amirthalingam, A, Cullen, J, Muradov, M, Carmona, EN, Sberveglieri, G, Sberveglieri, V and Al-Shamma'a, A (2018) Real-Time Microwave, Dielectric, and Optical Sensing of Lincomycin and Tylosin Antibiotics in Water: Sensor Fusion for Environmental Safety. Journal of Sensors, 2018. ISSN 1687-725X

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Antibiotics are widely used to prevent and treat bacterial infections in livestock animals, aquaculture, and humans. However, the unconditional use of those drugs as a growth promoter for livestock animals and the wrong usage as a treatment for infections in humans has led to high antibiotics pollution, especially in water resources. The elevated presence of antibiotics in water has resulted in the phenomenon known as the bacterial antibiotics resistance. To prevent ecological catastrophe, continuous realtime monitoring of water sources is necessary. The aim of this research work is to compare the abilities of three different techniques: novel electromagnetic wave spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and capacitance sensing system for the realtime detection and quantification of antibiotics in water. Tylosin and lincomycin antibiotics were selected to the study, as both are regularly found in water sources. Two novel microwave sensor configurations were used: a planar sensor with interdigitated electrode pattern and a hairpin resonator sensor, as a means of real-time water analysis. Reflected S11 power signals were analyzed in GHz frequency range for microwave sensors. In parallel, UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used, where change in the optical absorbance was used as an indicator of water pollution, whereas change in the value of a capacitance in low frequency range has signalled the change in the dielectric properties of the solution. It was found that in all cases the changes in the measured parameters were dependent on both the type of antibiotic present in water and on its concentration. Fusion of all these techniques into a comprehensive sensing platform provides adequate real-time assessment of the water pollution with antibiotics and would allow adequate management of environment for safety and sustainable development. In particular, the lowest lincomycin samples’ concentration, 0.25 μg/l, was measured with a hairpin resonator sensor, while the lowest tylosin samples’ concentration, 0.20 μg/l, was measured with an IDE sensor. Since concentration in groundwater were 0.36 μg/l of lincomycin and 1.5 μg/l of tylosin, it is demonstrating a high-sensing platform utility.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Science & Technology; Technology; Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Instruments & Instrumentation; Engineering; WASTE-WATER; RESISTANCE
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2018 09:44
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 02:14
DOI or ID number: 10.1155/2018/7976105
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9634
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