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Developing an Advanced IPv6 Evasion Attack Detection Framework

Tajdini, M (2018) Developing an Advanced IPv6 Evasion Attack Detection Framework. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent generation of Internet protocol. The transition from the current Internet Version 4 (IPv4) to IPv6 raised new issues and the most crucial issue is security vulnerabilities. Most vulnerabilities are common between IPv4 and IPv6, e.g. Evasion attack, Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) and Fragmentation attack. According to the IPv6 RFC (Request for Comment) recommendations, there are potential attacks against various Operating Systems. Discrepancies between the behaviour of several Operating Systems can lead to Intrusion Detection System (IDS) evasion, Firewall evasion, Operating System fingerprint, Network Mapping, DoS/DDoS attack and Remote code execution attack. We investigated some of the security issues on IPv6 by reviewing existing solutions and methods and performed tests on two open source Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs) which are Snort and Suricata against some of IPv6 evasions and attack methods. The results show that both NIDSs are unable to detect most of the methods that are used to evade detection. This thesis presents a detection framework specifically developed for IPv6 network to detect evasion, insertion and DoS attacks when using IPv6 Extension Headers and Fragmentation. We implemented the proposed theoretical solution into a proposed framework for evaluation tests. To develop the framework, “dpkt” module is employed to capture and decode the packet. During the development phase, a bug on the module used to parse/decode packets has been found and a patch provided for the module to decode the IPv6 packet correctly. The standard unpack function included in the “ip6” section of the “dpkt” package follows extension headers which means following its parsing, one has no access to all the extension headers in their original order. By defining, a new field called all_extension_headers and adding each header to it before it is moved along allows us to have access to all the extension headers while keeping the original parse speed of the framework virtually untouched. The extra memory footprint from this is also negligible as it will be a linear fraction of the size of the whole set of packet. By decoding the packet, extracting data from packet and evaluating the data with user-defined value, the proposed framework is able to detect IPv6 Evasion, Insertion and DoS attacks. The proposed framework consists of four layers. The first layer captures the network traffic and passes it to second layer for packet decoding which is the most important part of the detection process. It is because, if NIDS could not decode and extract the packet content, it would not be able to pass correct information into the Detection Engine process for detection. Once the packet has been decoded by the decoding process, the decoded packet will be sent to the third layer which is the brain of the proposed solution to make a decision by evaluating the information with the defined value to see whether the packet is threatened or not. This layer is called the Detection Engine. Once the packet(s) has been examined by detection processes, the result will be sent to output layer. If the packet matches with a type or signature that system admin chose, it raises an alarm and automatically logs all details of the packet and saves it for system admin for further investigation. We evaluated the proposed framework and its subsequent process via numerous experiments. The results of these conclude that the proposed framework, called NOPO framework, is able to offer better detection in terms of accuracy, with a more accurate packet decoding process, and reduced resources usage compared to both exciting NIDs.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Network Security; Computer Security; IPv6
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Computer Science & Mathematics
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2019 14:27
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2022 11:27
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00009864
Supervisors: Kolivand, H
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9864
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